Accounting Policies, by Policy (Policies)
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Revenue Recognition and Related Receivables
Revenue Recognition and Related Receivables—The following table summarizes revenue by type for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021:
|Service and subscription fees
Service and subscription fees—The Credit Builder Plus membership was developed to allow consumer customers to access affordable credit through asset collateralization, build savings, improve financial literacy and track their financial health. The Credit Builder Plus membership is intended to emphasize the program’s ability to help consumer customers build credit while also saving. Members also receive access to the Company’s banking account, managed investment services, credit tracking services and Instacash advances.
The membership subscription fee is recognized on a daily basis throughout the term of the individual subscription agreements, as the control of the membership services is delivered to the customer evenly throughout that term. Subscription receivables are recorded at the amount billed to the customer. The Company policy is to suspend recognition of subscription revenue when the last scheduled subscription payment is 30 days past due, or when, in the Company’s estimation, the collectability of the account is uncertain. Membership subscription revenue is recognized gross over time.
As the Company performs promised services to members, including those services that the members receive access to as part of the Credit Builder Plus membership, revenue is recognized in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those services. The Company evaluates whether it is appropriate to recognize revenue on a gross basis or net of costs associated with the transaction based upon its evaluation of whether the Company obtains control of the specified services by considering if it is primarily responsible for fulfilment of the promise, and has the latitude in establishing pricing, among other factors.
Most service fees are related to the Company’s Instacash advance product. Users may obtain cash from interest-free Instacash advances in 1-3 business days or may elect to receive cash immediately through the Company’s instant transfer option. The Company charges a fee when the instant transfer option is elected by a customer. Instant transfer fees are recognized gross over the term of the Instacash advance, as the services related to these fees are not distinct from the services of the Instacash advance. The receivable related to the instant transfer option fee is recorded at the amount billed to the customer.
With respect to the Company’s Instacash advance service, the Company provides customers with the option to provide a tip for the offering. Fees earned on tips are recognized gross over the term of the Instacash advance, as the services related to these fees are not distinct from the services of the Instacash advance. Advances typically include a term of 30 days or less, depending on the individual’s pay cycle. The Company’s policy is to suspend the account when an advance is 60 days or more past the scheduled payment date on a contractual basis or when, in the Company’s estimation, the collectability of the account is uncertain. The receivable related to the tip is recorded at the amount billed to the customer.
|Net interest income on loan receivables
Net interest income on loan receivables—Interest income and the related accrued interest receivables on loan-related receivables are accrued based upon the daily principal amount outstanding except for loans that are on nonaccrual status. The Company recognizes interest income using the interest method. The Company’s policy is to suspend recognition of interest income on finance receivables and place the loan on nonaccrual status when the account is 60 days or more past due on a contractual basis or when, in the Company’s estimation, the collectability of the account is uncertain, and the account is less than 90 days contractually past due.
|Enterprise service revenues
Enterprise service revenues—The Company provides services to enterprise clients to allow them to better connect with existing end-users and reach new potential end-users. These services include lead generation services, advertising services and digital media and content production services custom designed to promote enterprise clients’ products and services.
The Company has a single performance obligation to provide lead generating services to financial institutions and financial service providers (“Product Partners”) whereby qualified consumers are matched with financial solutions offered by the Product Partners based on qualification and preference.
Lead generation fees are earned through the operation of a robust technology platform via an API that connects consumers to financial institutions and financial service providers. The Company’s API platform functions as a powerful definitive search, comparison and ad recommendation engine that provides consumers with personalized financial solution options and matches the demand and supply of financial services. The lead generating services conducted through the API comprise a series of distinct services that are substantially the same and have the same pattern of transfer. The Company is entitled to receive transaction fees that are based on performance structure, including but not limited to cost per funded loan, cost per approved credit card, cost per click or cost per savings accounts, or revenue share based on successful lead conversion. The transaction fees and revenue share are considered revenue from contracts with Product Partners, including financial institutions and other financial service providers. These fees and revenue share to which the Company expects to be entitled are deemed variable consideration because the loan volume over the contractual term is not known. Because the lead generating service performance obligation is a series of distinct services, the Company applies the variable consideration exception and allocates the variable consideration to the period in which the fees are earned, and recognizes revenue over time.
The Company generates advertising fees by displaying ads on the Company’s mobile application and by sending emails or other messages to potential end-users to promote the enterprise clients’ services. For advertising services, the Company enters into agreements with the enterprise clients in the form of a signed contract, which specifies the terms of the services and fees, prior to running advertising and promotional campaigns. The Company recognizes revenue from the display of impression-based ads and distribution of impression-based emails in the period in which the impressions are delivered in accordance with the contractual terms of the enterprise clients’ arrangements. Impressions are considered delivered when a member clicks on the advertisement or promotion.
Digital media and content production services provided to enterprise clients are generally earned and recognized over time as the performance obligations within the contracts are satisfied. Payment terms vary from contract to contract such that collections may occur in advance of services being rendered, as services are rendered or after services are rendered. Contracts for digital media and content production services are typically short-term in duration.
|Allowance for Losses on Receivables
Allowance for Losses on Receivables—An allowance for losses on consumer receivables is established to provide for probable losses incurred in the Company’s consumer receivables at the balance sheet date and is established through a provision for losses on receivables. Charge-offs, net of recoveries, are charged directly to the allowance. The allowance is based on management’s assessment of many factors, including changes in the nature, volume, and risk characteristics of the consumer receivables portfolio, including trends in delinquency and charge-offs and current economic conditions that may affect the consumer’s ability to pay. The allowance is developed on a general basis and each period management assesses each product type by origination cohort in order to determine the forecasted performance of those cohorts and arrive at an appropriate allowance rate for that period. While management uses the best information available to make its evaluation, future adjustments to the allowance may be necessary if there are significant changes in any of the factors.
The Company’s charge-off policy is to charge-off finance receivables for loans and related accrued interest receivables, net of expected recoveries, in the month in which the account becomes 90 days contractually past due and charge-off finance receivables for advances and related fee receivables in the month in which the account becomes 60 days past due. If an account is deemed to be uncollectable prior to this date, the Company will charge-off the receivable in the month it is deemed uncollectable.
The Company determines the past due status using the contractual terms of the finance receivables. This is the credit quality indicator used to evaluate the required allowance for losses on finance receivables for each portfolio of products.
An allowance for losses on service and subscription fee receivables is established to provide probable losses incurred in the Company’s service and subscription fee receivables at the balance sheet date and is established through a provision for losses on receivables. Charge-offs, net of recoveries, are charged directly to the allowance. The allowance is based on management’s assessment of historical charge-offs and recoveries on these receivables, as well as certain qualitative factors including current economic conditions that may affect the customers’ ability to pay. Prior to the period ended June 30, 2021, the allowance related to these receivables had not been material to the consolidated financial statements.
Receivables from enterprise services have a low rate of default, and as such the related allowance is not material. The Company monitors enterprise receivable default rates for any indication of a deterioration in average credit quality that may result in more material levels of allowance for losses.
Intangible Assets—The Company’s intangible assets are made up of internal use software and acquired proprietary technology, customer relationships and trade names. The Company capitalizes qualifying internal use software development costs that are incurred during the application development stage, provided that management with the relevant authority authorizes the project, it is probable the project will be completed, and the software will be used to perform the function intended. Costs incurred during the application development stage internally or externally are capitalized and amortized on a straight-line basis over the expected useful life of three to seven years depending on the nature of the software development. Costs related to preliminary project activities and post-implementation operation activities, including training and maintenance, are expensed as incurred.
Stock-Based Compensation—The Company accounts for the restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and performance share units (“PSUs”) granted to employees or directors as stock-based compensation expense based on their grant date fair value. The grant date fair value is based on the price of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock on the day of the grant. Some PSUs have been granted with a performance condition based on the Company’s operating performance. These performance conditions are assessed each reporting period and expense related to these PSUs is adjusted by a factor consistent with the expected performance as of the reporting date.
The Company accounts for its stock options granted to employees or directors as stock-based compensation expense based on their grant date fair value. The Company uses a Black-Scholes option valuation model to measure the fair value of options at the date of grant.
Some PSU awards are issued with a market condition which are valued on the grant date utilizing a Monte Carlo simulation model.
The Black-Scholes option pricing model and the Monte Carlo simulation model require estimates of future stock price volatility, expected term, risk-free interest rate and forfeitures.
The fair value of all awards is recognized as an expense over the requisite service period in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations. Forfeitures are accounted for as they are incurred.
|Valuation of consideration transferred related to mergers and acquisitions
Valuation of consideration transferred related to mergers and acquisitions— The Company determined that the contingent consideration related to the earnout provision, the Closing Make-Whole Provision (as defined herein) and the Preferred Stock Equivalents (as defined herein) in connection with the MALKA Acquisition and Even Acquisition (each as defined herein) do not meet the criteria for equity treatment. For provisions that do not meet all the criteria for equity treatment, the contingent consideration is required to be recorded at fair value on the date of issuance, and each balance sheet date thereafter. Changes in the estimated fair value of the contingent consideration are recognized as a non-cash gain or loss on the statements of operations. As such, the MALKA and Even Financial earnout provision is recorded as a liability and any change in fair value is recognized in the Company’s statements of operations. The fair value of the MALKA and Even Financial earnout was estimated using a Monte Carlo Simulation Model.
The Company determined that the consideration related to the shares of MoneyLion’s Series A Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Series A Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock”), transferred as part of the consideration for the Even Acquisition meets the criteria for equity treatment. The fair value of this consideration was estimated using a Monte Carlo Simulation Model and recorded to equity on the date of issuance.
Goodwill—The Company performs goodwill impairment testing annually, on the last day of the fiscal year or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist. A potential impairment indicator was identified during the quarter ended June 30, 2022 and the quarter ended September 30, 2022 due to a decline in the MoneyLion Class A Common Stock price and the related market capitalization and, as such, the Company performed a goodwill impairment test as of June 30, 2022 and September 30, 2022. The goodwill impairment test is performed at the consolidated Company level since the Company represents one reporting unit. The Company first evaluates whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit has fallen below its carrying amount. No indicators of fair value falling below the reporting unit carrying amount were noted on a quantitative or qualitative basis during the fiscal year 2021 assessment, the June 30, 2022 assessment nor the September 30, 2022 assessment. The June 30, 2022 and September 30, 2022 assessments indicated that the fair value of the reporting unit exceeded the reporting unit's carrying value. The fair value of the reporting unit was calculated by valuing the MoneyLion Class A Common Stock and Series A Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock primarily based on the MoneyLion Class A Common Stock price per share. The calculation of fair value also includes an estimated control premium based on consultation between the Company's management and third-party valuation specialists.
Leases—Effective January 1, 2022, arrangements containing leases are evaluated as an operating or finance lease at lease inception. No finance leases were identified. For operating leases, the Company recognizes an operating right-of-use asset and operating lease liability at lease commencement based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term.
Since an implicit rate of return is not readily determinable for the Company’s leases, an incremental borrowing rate is used in determining the present value of lease payments. The incremental borrowing rate is determined using the rate of interest the Company pays to borrow funds on a collateralized basis, adjusted for differences in the lease term compared to the Company’s debt using the differences in daily U.S. treasury par yield curve that correspond to the terms of the Company’s lease and debt. These rates are updated on a quarterly basis for measurement of new lease obligations. Some leases include renewal options; however, generally it is not reasonably certain that these options will be exercised at lease commencement. Lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recognized on the Company’s balance sheet. The Company separates lease and non-lease components for its real estate leases.
|Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair Value of Financial Instruments—Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 820, Fair Value Measurement (“ASC 820”), provides a single definition of fair value and a common framework for measuring fair value as well as disclosure requirements for fair value measurements used in financial statements. Under ASC 820, fair value is determined based upon the exit price that would be received by a company to sell an asset or paid by a company to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants, exclusive of any transaction costs. Fair value measurements are determined by either the principal market or the most advantageous market. The principal market is the market with the greatest level of activity and volume for the asset or liability. Absent a principal market to measure fair value, the Company uses the most advantageous market, which is the market from which the Company would receive the highest selling price for the asset or pay the lowest price to settle the liability, after considering transaction costs. However, when using the most advantageous market, transaction costs are only considered to determine which market is the most advantageous and these costs are then excluded when applying a fair value measurement. ASC 820 creates a three-level hierarchy to prioritize the inputs used in the valuation techniques to derive fair values. The basis for fair value measurements for each level within the hierarchy is described below, with Level 1 having the highest priority and Level 3 having the lowest.
Level 1 – Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 – Observable inputs other than Level 1 quoted prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices in markets that are not active for identical or similar assets and liabilities, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 – Valuations are based on inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement of the assets or liabilities. Inputs reflect management’s best estimate of what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Consideration is given to the risk inherent in the valuation technique and the risk inherent in the inputs to the model.
The Company has no assets measured at fair value on a recurring or non-recurring basis as of September 30, 2022 nor December 31, 2021. Liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021 are the Private Placement Warrants (as defined herein) and contingent consideration related to mergers and acquisitions, which are further described in Note 14, "Stock Warrants," and Note 17, "Mergers and Acquisitions," respectively. The Company has no liabilities measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis as of September 30, 2022 nor December 31, 2021. There have been no transfers between levels during the nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021.
The Company also has financial instruments which are not measured at fair value. The Company has evaluated cash, restricted cash, consumer receivables, net, enterprise receivables, receivables from payment processors, prepaid expenses, accounts payable and accrued liabilities and other financial instrument assets and liabilities, and believes the carrying value approximates the fair value due to the short-term nature of these balances. The fair value of the secured loans, other debt and lease liabilities approximate their carrying values.
|Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements—The Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), effective January 1, 2022, and applied the changes prospectively, recognizing a cumulative-effect adjustment to the beginning balance of retained earnings as of the adoption date. As permitted by the new guidance, the Company elected the package of practical expedients, which among other things, allowed historical lease classification to be carried forward. Upon adoption of the ASU No. 2016-02, the Company recognized an aggregate lease liability and right-of-use asset of $3,551, calculated based on the present value of the remaining minimum lease payments for qualifying leases as of January 1, 2022. The cumulative-effect adjustment recognized to the beginning balance of retained earnings was not material. The adoption of the new guidance did not impact the Company’s unaudited consolidated interim statements of operations or cash flows.
|Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted—The Company currently qualifies as an “emerging growth company” under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012. Accordingly, the Company has the option to adopt new or revised accounting guidance either (i) within the same periods as those otherwise applicable to non-emerging growth companies or (ii) within the same time periods applicable to private companies. The Company has elected to adopt new or revised accounting guidance within the same time period as private companies, unless, as indicated below, management determines it is preferable to take advantage of early adoption provisions offered within the applicable guidance.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which, along with subsequent related ASUs, creates a new credit impairment standard for financial assets measured at amortized cost and available-for-sale debt securities. The ASU requires financial assets measured at amortized cost (including loans, trade receivables and held-to-maturity debt securities) to be presented at the net amount expected to be collected, through an allowance for credit losses that are expected to occur over the remaining life of the asset, rather than incurred losses. The ASU requires that credit losses on available-for-sale debt securities be presented as an allowance rather than as a direct write-down. The measurement of credit losses for newly recognized financial assets (other than certain purchased assets) and subsequent changes in the allowance for credit losses are recorded in the statement of income as the amounts expected to be collected change. The ASU is effective for nonpublic entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is in process of evaluating the impact that adoption of this new guidance will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (Topic 740). The amendments in the updated guidance simplify the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions and improving consistent application of other areas of the topic by clarifying the guidance. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021 and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. Early adoption is permitted. The Company believes the adoption impact of ASU 2019-12 will not be material to the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitating of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, which provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying U.S. GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships and other transactions in which the reference London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) or another reference rate is expected to be discontinued as a result of the Reference Rate Reform. This ASU is intended to ease the potential burden in accounting for (or recognizing the effects of) reference rate reform on financial reporting. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021 and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. Early adoption is permitted. The Company has no significant contracts based on LIBOR as of March 31, 2022. As such, the Company currently does not intend to elect the optional expedients and exceptions.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt With Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. The ASU simplifies the accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity, including convertible instruments and contracts on an entity’s own equity. The updated standard will be effective for the Company on January 1, 2024; however, early adoption of the ASU is permitted on January 1, 2021. The Company is in process of evaluating the impact that the updated standard will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.