As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 22, 2022

Registration No. 333-              

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

______________________

FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

______________________

MONEYLION INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

______________________

Delaware

 

6770

 

85-0849243

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

MoneyLion Inc.
30 West 21
st Street, 9th Floor
New York, NY 10010
(212) 380-1735

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

______________________

Rick Correia
Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer
MoneyLion Inc.
30 West 21
st Street, 9th Floor
New York, NY 10010
(212) 380
-1735

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

______________________

Copies of all correspondence to:

Byron B. Rooney
Lee Hochbaum
Darren M. Schweiger
Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP
450 Lexington Avenue
New York, New York 10017
Tel: (212) 450-4000

______________________

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 check the following box: 

If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. 

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. 

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

Smaller reporting company

 

       

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. The selling stockholders may not sell these securities until the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission declares the registration statement effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we and the selling stockholders are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state or jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MARCH 22, 2022

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

MONEYLION INC.

28,693,931 Shares of Class A Common Stock

______________________

The selling stockholders named in this prospectus (the “Selling Stockholders”) may offer and sell from time to time up to 28,693,931 shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “MoneyLion Class A Common Stock”), of MoneyLion Inc. underlying 28,693,931 shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Preferred Stock”), of MoneyLion Inc. that were issued to the Selling Stockholders in connection with the Even Acquisition (as defined herein).

The Selling Stockholders may offer, sell or distribute all or a portion of the securities hereby registered publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We will not receive any of the proceeds from such sales of the MoneyLion Class A Common Stock. We will bear all costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of these securities, including with regard to compliance with state securities or “blue sky” laws. The Selling Stockholders will bear all commissions and discounts, if any, attributable to their sale of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock. See “Plan of Distribution.”

The MoneyLion Class A Common Stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “ML”. On March 21, 2022, the last reported sales price of the MoneyLion Class A Common Stock was $2.98 per share.

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 6 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in any amendment or supplements to this prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

______________________

The date of this prospectus is March      , 2022.

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

 

1

Summary of the Prospectus

 

3

The Offering

 

5

Risk Factors

 

6

Use of Proceeds

 

43

Market Price of Our Securities

 

44

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

45

Business

 

64

Management

 

88

Executive and Director Compensation

 

95

Description of Securities

 

102

Securities Act Restrictions on Resale of Common Stock

 

111

Beneficial Ownership of Securities

 

112

Selling Stockholders

 

114

Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions

 

119

Material United States Federal Income Tax Consequences

 

121

Plan of Distribution

 

124

Legal Matters

 

126

Experts

 

126

Where You Can Find More Information

 

126

Index to Financial Statements

 

F-1

No one has been authorized to provide you with information that is different from that contained in this prospectus. This prospectus is dated as of the date set forth on the cover hereof. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than that date.

For investors outside the United States: We have not done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus.

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus includes forward-looking statements regarding, among other things, the plans, strategies and prospects, both business and financial, of MoneyLion. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of the management of MoneyLion. Although MoneyLion believes that its respective plans, intentions and expectations reflected in or suggested by these forward-looking statements are reasonable, MoneyLion cannot assure you that it will achieve or realize these plans, intentions or expectations. Generally, statements that are not historical facts, including statements concerning possible or assumed future actions, business strategies, events or results of operations, are forward-looking statements. These statements may be preceded by, followed by or include the words “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “projects,” “forecasts,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “plans,” “scheduled,” “anticipates,” or “intends” or similar expressions. The forward-looking statements are based on projections prepared by, and are the responsibility of, MoneyLion’s management. RSM US LLP (“RSM”), MoneyLion’s independent auditor, has not examined, compiled or otherwise applied procedures with respect to the accompanying forward-looking financial information presented herein and, accordingly, expresses no opinion or any other form of assurance on it. The RSM report included in this prospectus relates to historical financial information of MoneyLion. It does not extend to the forward-looking information and should not be read as if it does.

Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties, many of which may be beyond MoneyLion’s control. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance or outcomes, and MoneyLion’s actual performance and outcomes, including, without limitation, actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the market in which MoneyLion operates, may differ materially from those made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus. Factors that could cause actual results and outcomes to differ from those reflected in forward-looking statements include, without limitation:

•        factors relating to the business, operations and financial performance of MoneyLion, including market conditions and global and economic factors beyond MoneyLion’s control, including the COVID-19 pandemic;

•        intense and increasing competition in the industries in which MoneyLion and its subsidiaries, including MALKA (as defined herein), operate, and demand for and consumer confidence in MoneyLion’s products and services, including as a result of any adverse publicity concerning MoneyLion;

•        MoneyLion’s ability to realize strategic objectives and avoid difficulties and risks of any acquisitions, strategic investments, entries into new businesses, joint ventures, divestitures and other transactions;

•        MoneyLion’s reliance on third parties to provide services;

•        MoneyLion’s ability to service loans or advances properly and the performance of the loans and other receivables originated through MoneyLion’s platform;

•        MoneyLion’s ability to raise financing in the future, to comply with restrictive covenants related to its long-term indebtedness and to manage the effects of changes in the cost of capital;

•        MoneyLion’s success in retaining or recruiting, or changing as required, its officers, key employees and directors, including MALKA’s ability to retain its content creators;

•        MoneyLion’s ability to comply with the extensive and evolving laws and regulations applicable to its business;

•        risks related to the proper functioning of MoneyLion’s IT systems and data storage, including as a result of cyberattacks and other security breaches or disruptions suffered by MoneyLion or third parties upon which it relies;

•        MoneyLion’s ability to protect its intellectual property rights;

•        MoneyLion’s ability to comply with laws and regulations applicable to its business and the outcome of any legal or governmental proceedings that may be instituted against MoneyLion;

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•        MoneyLion’s ability to establish and maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting;

•        MoneyLion’s ability to maintain the listing of MoneyLion’s Class A common stock (“MoneyLion Class A Common Stock”) and of MoneyLion’s publicly traded warrants to purchase MoneyLion Class A Common Stock (the “Public Warrants”) on the NYSE and any volatility in the market price of MoneyLion’s securities; and

•        other factors detailed under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus.

The risks described under the heading “Risk Factors” are not exhaustive. Other sections of this prospectus describe additional factors that could adversely affect the business, financial condition or results of operations of MoneyLion. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible to predict all such risk factors, nor can MoneyLion assess the impact of all such risk factors on the business of MoneyLion, or the extent to which any factor or combination of factors may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of performance. You should not put undue reliance on these statements, which speak only as of the date hereof. All forward-looking statements attributable to MoneyLion or persons acting on their behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the foregoing cautionary statements. MoneyLion undertakes no obligations to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

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SUMMARY OF THE PROSPECTUS

This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that is important to you in making an investment decision. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information included in this prospectus. Before making your investment decision with respect to our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including the information under “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and the financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “MoneyLion,” the “Company”, “we,” “our,” “us” and other similar terms refer to MoneyLion Inc. and, as context requires, its consolidated subsidiaries for the period following the Business Combination (as defined in Note 1, “Description of Business and Basis of Presentation” in the financial statements included in this prospectus) and to MoneyLion Technologies Inc. and, as context requires, its consolidated subsidiaries for the period prior to the Business Combination. “Fusion” refers to Fusion Acquisition Corp. prior to the Business Combination.

General

MoneyLion offers a personalized, all-in-one, digital financial platform that provides convenient, low-cost access to banking, borrowing and investing solutions tailored for our customers, rooted in data and delivered through our proprietary technology platform. We use innovative, data-driven approaches to address our customers’ individual life inflection points and financial circumstances. When our customers enjoy periods of financial excess, we provide tools for them to easily manage their spending and saving goals through our digital banking and automated investing solutions. When our customers experience moments of financial need, we provide them immediate access to innovative lending or earned income advance products and credit improvement programs that can bridge these times of financial stress and improve their financial health. We provide access to personalized proprietary products as well as financial and non-financial products offered by third-party providers. Our subsidiary, Malka Media Group LLC (“MALKA”), provides digital media and content production services to us and to its own clients in entertainment, sports, gaming, live streaming and other sectors.

The mailing address of MoneyLion’s principal executive office is 30 West 21st Street, 9th Floor, New York, NY, 10010 and its telephone number is (212) 380-1735.

Recent Developments

On February 17, 2022, MoneyLion completed its acquisition (the “Even Acquisition”) of Even Financial Inc. (“Even Financial”). Even Financial digitally connects and matches consumers with real-time personalized financial product recommendations from banks, insurance and fintech companies on mobile apps, websites and other consumer touchpoints through its marketplace technology. Even Financial’s infrastructure leverages machine learning and advanced data science to solve a significant pain point in financial services customer acquisition, seamlessly bridging financial institutions and channel partners via its industry-leading API and embedded finance marketplaces.

The Even Acquisition strengthens MoneyLion’s platform by improving consumers’ abilities to find and access the right financial products to help them manage their financial lives. Even Financial’s growing network includes over 400 financial institution partners and 500 channel partners, covering a breadth of financial services including loans, credit cards, mortgages, savings and insurance products. The Even Acquisition also expands MoneyLion’s addressable market, extends the reach of MoneyLion’s own products, diversifies its revenue mix and furthers MoneyLion’s ambition to be the premier financial super app for hardworking Americans.

At the closing of the Even Acquisition, MoneyLion (i) issued to the equityholders of Even Financial an aggregate of 28,164,811 shares of Preferred Stock, with a face value of the “Conversion Price”, (ii) paid to certain Even Financial management equityholders approximately $14.5 million in cash, (iii) issued an aggregate of 529,120 shares of Preferred Stock to advisors of Even Financial for transaction expenses, and (iv) exchanged 8,883,228 options to acquire Even Financial common stock for 5,901,846 options to acquire MoneyLion Class A Common Stock. The equityholders and advisors of Even Financial are also entitled to receive an additional payment from MoneyLion of up to an aggregate of 8.0 million shares of Preferred Stock, with a face value per share equal to the Conversion Price, based on the attributed revenue of Even Financial’s business during the 13-month period commencing January 1, 2022 (the “Even Financial Earnout”). Based on the Conversion Price of the shares of Preferred Stock issued at the closing

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of the Even Acquisition and to be issued pursuant to the Even Financial Earnout, the value of the options to acquire MoneyLion Class A Common Stock and the cash paid to the management equityholders, the total purchase price was approximately $440 million, subject to customary purchase price adjustments for working capital and inclusive of transaction expenses and amounts used to repay approximately $5.7 million of existing indebtedness of Even Financial.

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THE OFFERING

Securities Offered by the Selling
Stockholders

 


We are registering the resale by the Selling Stockholders named in this prospectus, or their permitted transferees, of an aggregate of 28,693,931 shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock underlying 28,693,931 shares of Preferred Stock.

Terms of the Offering

 

The Selling Stockholders will determine when and how they will dispose of the shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock registered under this prospectus for resale, subject to any lock-up restrictions, as applicable.

Shares Outstanding Prior to the Offering

 

As of March 15, 2022, we had 230,820,394 shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock issued and outstanding.

Shares Outstanding After the Offering

 

259,514,325 shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock (assuming the conversion of all issued and outstanding Preferred Stock to shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock on a one-to-one basis).

Use of Proceeds

 

We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of the shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock by the Selling Stockholders. See “Use of Proceeds.”

NYSE Ticker Symbol

 

The MoneyLion Class A Common Stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “ML”.

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RISK FACTORS

We have identified the following risks and uncertainties that may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or reputation. The risks described below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are not material may also significantly affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or reputation. Our business could be harmed by any of these risks. In assessing these risks, you should also refer to the other information contained in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes.

RISK FACTOR SUMMARY

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those we face in connection with the successful implementation of our strategy and the growth of our business. The following considerations, among others, may offset our competitive strengths or have a negative effect on our business strategy, which could cause a decline in the price of shares of our securities and result in a loss of all or a portion of your investment:

•        MoneyLion’s financial condition, results of operations and business may be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, economic conditions and other factors that it cannot control. In an economic downturn, MoneyLion may not be able to grow its business or maintain expected levels of liquidity or revenue growth.

•        MoneyLion’s results of operations and future prospects depend on its ability to attract new and retain existing customers. MoneyLion faces intense and increasing competition and if it does not compete effectively, its competitive positioning and operating results may be harmed.

•        Demand for MoneyLion’s products or services may decline if it does not continue to innovate or respond to evolving technological or other changes. A significant change in consumer confidence in MoneyLion’s products or services or adverse publicity concerning MoneyLion, its business or its personnel could negatively impact MoneyLion’s business.

•        Any acquisitions, strategic investments, entries into new businesses, joint ventures, divestitures and other transactions could fail to achieve strategic objectives, disrupt MoneyLion’s ongoing operations or result in operating difficulties, liabilities and expenses, harm its business and negatively impact its results of operations.

•        Because MoneyLion relies on third parties to provide services, MoneyLion could be adversely impacted if such third parties fail to fulfill their obligations or if MoneyLion’s arrangements with them are terminated and suitable replacements cannot be found on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

•        If MoneyLion fails to comply with the applicable requirements of its third-party partners, they could seek to suspend or terminate MoneyLion’s accounts, which could adversely affect MoneyLion’s business. The loss of third-party service providers, or the failure by a third-party service provider to comply with legal or regulatory requirements or otherwise perform its functions properly may adversely MoneyLion’s business.

•        If MALKA, MoneyLion’s wholly-owned subsidiary, is unable to remain competitive or retain key clients, its business and results of operations and financial position may be adversely affected. Increases in the costs of content may have an adverse effect on MALKA’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

•        If the information provided to MoneyLion by customers is incorrect or fraudulent, MoneyLion may misjudge a customer’s qualifications to receive its products and services and its results of operations may be harmed and could subject MoneyLion to regulatory scrutiny or penalties.

•        If loans and other receivables originated through MoneyLion’s platform do not perform, or significantly underperform, MoneyLion may incur financial losses on the receivables it originates or lose the confidence of its financing sources. In addition, a failure by MoneyLion to service loans or advances properly could result in lost revenue and negatively impact its business and operations or subject MoneyLion to regulatory scrutiny or penalties.

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•        If MoneyLion’s existing funding arrangements are not renewed or replaced or its existing funding sources are unwilling or unable to provide funding to it on terms acceptable to it, or at all, it could have a material adverse effect on MoneyLion’s business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and future prospects. MoneyLion may be unsuccessful in managing the effects of changes in the cost of capital on its business.

•        MoneyLion’s engineering and technical development teams are based primarily in Malaysia, which could be adversely affected by changes in political or economic stability, or by government policies.

•        Systems defects, failures or disruptions, including events beyond MoneyLion’s control, and resulting interruptions in the availability of MoneyLion’s websites, applications, products, or services could harm MoneyLion’s business, harm its reputation, result in significant costs to MoneyLion, decrease MoneyLion’s potential profitability and expose it to substantial liability.

•        MoneyLion has a history of losses and may not achieve profitability in the future.

•        MoneyLion’s business is subject to extensive regulation, examination and oversight in a variety of areas. The legal and regulatory regimes governing certain of MoneyLion’s products and services are uncertain and evolving. Changing laws, regulations, interpretations or regulatory enforcement priorities may negatively impact the management of its business, results of operations, ability to offer certain products or the terms and conditions upon which they are offered and ability to compete.

•        Cyberattacks and other security breaches or disruptions suffered by MoneyLion or third parties upon which it relies could have a materially adverse effect on MoneyLion’s business, harm its reputation and expose it to public scrutiny or liability.

•        While MoneyLion takes precautions to prevent consumer identity fraud, it is possible that identity fraud may still occur or has occurred, which may adversely affect the performance of MoneyLion’s products and services or subject MoneyLion to scrutiny or penalties.

•        MoneyLion may be unable to sufficiently obtain, maintain, protect or enforce its intellectual property and other proprietary rights. In addition, MoneyLion’s business and platform depend in part on intellectual property and proprietary rights and technology licensed from or otherwise made available to MoneyLion by third parties. If MoneyLion fails to comply with its obligations under license or technology agreements with third parties, MoneyLion may be required to pay damages and MoneyLion could lose license rights that are critical to its business.

•        MoneyLion has in the past been, and continues to be, subject to inquiries, subpoenas, exams, pending investigations and enforcement matters by state and federal regulators, the outcomes of which are uncertain and could cause reputational and financial harm to MoneyLion’s business and results of operations.

•        The market price of MoneyLion’s securities may be volatile. In addition, MoneyLion’s failure to meet the continued listing requirements of the NYSE could result in a delisting of its securities.

Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations

Our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Occurrences of epidemics or pandemics, depending on their scale, may cause different degrees of disruption to the regional, state and local economies in which we offer our products and services. The current COVID-19 pandemic could have a material adverse effect on the value, operating results and financial condition of our business.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial changes in consumer behavior, restrictions on business and individual activities and high unemployment rates, which led to reduced economic activity and may continue to cause economic volatility. Extraordinary actions taken by international, federal, state and local public health and governmental authorities to contain and combat the outbreak and spread of COVID-19 in regions throughout the world, including travel bans, quarantines, “stay-at-home” orders, suspension of interest accrual and similar mandates for many individuals and businesses to substantially restrict daily activities have led to a decrease in consumer activity generally. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on consumer finances and on employment

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levels, which could lead to lower demand for loans, higher loan delinquencies, less likelihood of signing up for our membership programs, less likelihood of making investments through our platform and less spending on the MoneyLion platform, all of which would have a negative impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

There continue to be significant uncertainties associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including with respect to the course, duration and severity of the virus and additional variants, future actions that may be taken by governmental authorities and private businesses to contain the COVID-19 pandemic or to mitigate its impact and the effectiveness of such actions, the timing and speed of economic recovery and the ultimate effectiveness of vaccinations for COVID-19. We continue to monitor the situation and assess further possible implications to our business. A continued significant economic slowdown could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. COVID-19 could have the following adverse effects on our business and results of operations, among others:

•        reduced borrower approval rates, including as a result of credit eligibility and other adjustments;

•        lower average balances of our loans as a result of changes in consumer demand and adjustments to our credit decisioning process and credit criteria;

•        reduced pool of customers eligible for our loan or advance products;

•        impeded liquidity and negative fair value adjustments with respect to our loans or advance products; and

•        reduced funds available for our investment products.

See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of our Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Recent Developments” and “— Results of Operations for the Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020” for further discussion of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in recent periods on our business and operating results. We cannot at this time reasonably estimate the impact to our future results of operations, cash flows and financial condition; however, if these conditions worsen, we may be materially and adversely impacted. The COVID-19 pandemic, and its impact, may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described herein.

Our business may be adversely affected by economic conditions and other factors that we cannot control.

Uncertainty and negative trends in general economic conditions, including significant tightening of credit markets, historically have created a difficult operating environment for our industry. Many factors, including factors that are beyond our control, may impact our results of operations or financial condition and our overall success by affecting a customer’s willingness and capacity to use our products and services, including a customer’s willingness to incur loan obligations or willingness or capacity to make payments on their loans or other services we offer. These factors include interest rates, unemployment levels, conditions in the housing market, immigration policies, gas prices, energy costs, government shutdowns, trade wars and delays in tax refunds, as well as events such as natural disasters, acts of war, terrorism, catastrophes and pandemics.

Many new customers on our platform have limited or no credit history and limited financial resources. Accordingly, such customers have historically been, and may in the future become, disproportionately affected by adverse macroeconomic conditions, such as the disruption and uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, major medical expenses, divorce, death or other issues that affect customers could affect a customer’s willingness or ability to make payments on their loans or advances or engage in investing activities. If borrowers default on loans facilitated on our platform, the cost to service these loans may also increase without a corresponding increase in revenue earned from lending operations and the value of the loans could decline. Higher default rates by these borrowers may lead to lower demand by our funding sources and institutional investors to fund loans and other receivables facilitated by our platform, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

During periods of economic slowdown or recession, our current and potential investors in our special purpose financing structure may reduce the number of loans or other receivables they are willing to finance or demand terms that are less favorable to us, to compensate for any increased risks. A reduction in the volume of the loans and other receivables we are able to finance through this structure would negatively impact our ability to maintain or increase the level of our lending and provision of other services to customers. Any sustained decline in demand for loans or

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other services we offer, or any increase in delinquencies or defaults that result from economic downturns, may harm our ability to maintain robust volumes for our lending operations and other services, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For the year ended December 31, 2021, for secured personal loans provided through our Credit Builder Plus membership program, the average 30+ day delinquency rate was 3.9% and the average monthly default rate was 1.4%. For the year ended December 31, 2021, the non-repayment rate for advances provided through our Instacash product was 5.4%. See “Business — Our Product Platform.”

For example, the COVID-19 pandemic and other related adverse economic events led to a significant increase in unemployment, comparable, and at times surpassing, the unemployment rates during the peak of the financial crisis in 2008. There can be no assurance that levels of unemployment or underemployment will improve in the near term. The increase in the unemployment rate could increase the non-repayment rate on our loans and advance products, increase the rate of customers declaring bankruptcy or decrease our customers’ use of our investment and other products and services, any of which could adversely affect the attractiveness of our loans and other receivables to our financing sources. If we are unable to adjust our platform to account for events like the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting rise in unemployment, or if our platform is unable to more successfully predict the creditworthiness of potential borrowers compared to other lenders, then our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused some borrowers on our platform to request a temporary extension or modification of the payment schedules of their loans under our temporary relief or loan modification programs, or hardship programs. If a large number of borrowers seek to participate in such hardship programs, the investment returns of our financing sources could decline. Further, if the rate of borrowers that participate in such hardship programs is greater than those experienced by our competitors, then our financing sources may become less interested providing financing for our loans and other consumer receivables, which could negatively impact our funding strategy or significantly increase the cost of obtaining funding. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If there is an economic downturn that affects our current and prospective customers or our financing sources, or if we are unable to address and mitigate the risks associated with any of the foregoing, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We operate in a cyclical industry. In an economic downturn, we may not be able to grow our business or maintain expected levels of liquidity or revenue growth.

The timing, severity and duration of an economic downturn can have a significant negative impact on our ability to generate adequate revenue and to absorb expected and unexpected losses. For example, in making a decision whether to extend credit to a new or existing customer or determine appropriate pricing for a loan or whether to provide a customer an advance, our decision strategies rely on robust data collection, including from third-party sources, proprietary scoring models and market expertise. An economic downturn could place financial stress on our customers, potentially impacting our ability to make accurate assessments or decisions about our customers’ ability to pay for loans and other services we provide, as well as our customers’ willingness to use our products and services. Our ability to adapt in a manner that balances future revenue production and loss management may be tested in a downturn. The longevity and severity of a downturn may also place pressure on our funding sources. There can be no assurance that our financing arrangements will remain available to us through any particular business cycle or be renewed on the same terms. The timing and extent of a downturn may also require us to change, postpone or cancel our strategic initiatives or growth plans to pursue shorter-term sustainability. The longer and more severe an economic downturn, the greater the potential adverse impact on us, which could be material.

We are a rapidly growing company with a relatively limited operating history, which may result in increased risks, uncertainties, expenses and difficulties, and makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects.

We were founded in 2013 and have experienced rapid growth in recent years. Our limited operating history may make it difficult to make accurate predictions about our future performance. Assessing our business and future prospects may also be difficult because of the risks and difficulties we face. These risks and difficulties include our ability to:

•        improve the effectiveness and predictiveness of our data-driven platform;

•        maintain and increase the volume of loans, advances and other financial products we provide through our platform;

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•        enter into new and maintain existing relationships with third-party partners and service providers;

•        successfully maintain cost-effective sources of financing for our operations;

•        maintain competitive interest rates offered to borrowers on our platform, while enabling our funding sources to achieve an adequate return over their cost of funds;

•        successfully build our brand and protect our reputation from negative publicity;

•        increase the effectiveness of our marketing strategies, including our direct consumer marketing initiatives;

•        continue to expand the number of our potential customers;

•        successfully adjust our proprietary models, products and services in a timely manner in response to changing macroeconomic conditions and fluctuations in the credit market;

•        comply with and successfully adapt to complex and evolving regulatory environments;

•        protect against increasingly sophisticated fraudulent uses of financial products and online theft;

•        successfully compete with companies that are currently in, or may in the future enter, the business of providing consumer financial services;

•        enter into new markets and introduce new products and services;

•        sufficiently obtain, maintain, protect, or enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights;

•        effectively secure and maintain the confidentiality of the information received, accessed, stored, provided and used across our systems;

•        successfully obtain and maintain funding and liquidity to support continued growth and general corporate purposes;

•        attract, integrate and retain qualified employees; and

•        effectively manage and expand the capabilities of our operations teams, outsourcing relationships and other business operations.

If we are not able to timely and effectively address these risks and difficulties as well as those described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section, our business and results of operations may be harmed.

Our results of operations and future prospects depend on our ability to attract new and retain existing customers. We face intense and increasing competition and, if we do not compete effectively, our competitive positioning and our operating results may be harmed.

We operate in a rapidly changing and highly competitive industry, and our results of operations and future prospects depend on, among others:

•        the continued growth of our customer base;

•        our ability to monetize our customer base, including through additional products by our existing customers;

•        our ability to acquire customers at a lower cost; and

•        our ability to increase the overall value to us of each of our customers while they remain on our platform.

We believe that our ability to compete depends upon many factors both within and beyond our control, including, among others, the following:

•        the size, diversity and activity levels of our customer base;

•        the timing and market acceptance of products and services, including developments and enhancements to those products and services, offered by us and our competitors;

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•        customer service and support efforts;

•        selling and marketing efforts;

•        the ease of use, performance, price and reliability of solutions developed either by us or our competitors;

•        changes in economic conditions, regulatory and policy developments;

•        general credit markets conditions and their impact on our liquidity and ability to access funding;

•        the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the lending and financial services markets we serve;

•        our brand strength relative to our competitors; and

•        competition over highly skilled personnel in the technology industry.

We expect our competition to continue to increase, as there are generally no substantial barriers to entry to the markets we serve. In addition to established enterprises, we may also face competition from early-stage companies attempting to capitalize on the same, or similar, opportunities as we are. Some of our current and potential competitors have longer operating histories, particularly with respect to financial services products similar to ours, significantly greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources and a larger customer base than we do. This allows them, among other things, to potentially offer more competitive pricing or other terms or features, a broader range of financial products or a more specialized set of specific products or services, as well as respond more quickly than we can to new or emerging technologies and changes in customer preferences. Our existing or future competitors may develop products or services that are similar to our products and services or that achieve greater market acceptance than our products and services. This could attract customers away from our services and reduce our market share in the future. Additionally, when new competitors seek to enter our markets, or when existing market participants seek to increase their market share, these competitors sometimes undercut, or otherwise exert pressure on, the pricing terms prevalent in that market, which could adversely affect our market share and/or ability to capitalize on new market opportunities.

We currently compete at multiple levels with a variety of competitors, including:

•        traditional banks and credit unions;

•        new entrants obtaining banking licenses;

•        other non-bank digital providers that white label regulated products, offering banking-related services;

•        specialty finance and other non-bank providers, offering consumer lending-related products or advances; and

•        online wealth management platforms, such as robo-advisors, offering consumer investment services.

We compete with traditional banks for many of the services we offer. Because we do not currently control a bank or a bank holding company, we are subject to regulation by a variety of state and federal regulators across our products and services and we rely on MetaBank®, N.A. (“MetaBank”), a South Dakota-based, nationally chartered bank owned by Meta Financial Group, Inc. (NASDAQ: CASH), to provide banking accounts and debit cards to our customers. This regulation by federal, state and local authorities increases our compliance costs, particularly for our lending business, as we navigate multiple regimes with different examination schedules and processes, varying disclosure requirements and at times conflicting consumer protection laws. In addition, our ability to compete may be hampered in certain states where the amount of interest we are permitted to charge customers is capped and we are consequently unable to make loans to all the customers that we believe may be qualified but to whom we cannot offer the appropriate risk-adjusted margin.

Our current and future business prospects demand that we act to meet these competitive challenges but, in doing so, our net revenue and results of operations could be adversely affected if we, for example, increase marketing expenditures or make other expenditures. Competitive pressures could also result in us reducing the amounts we charge for our various products and services, such as reducing the annual percentage rate on the loans we originate, or incurring higher customer acquisition costs, and could make it more difficult for us to grow our financial services product offerings in both number and volume for new as well as existing customers. All of the foregoing factors and events could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and future prospects.

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In addition, our subsidiary, MALKA, faces competition from others in the digital content creation industry and media companies. MALKA’s current and potential competitors range from large and established companies to emerging start-ups. Established companies have longer operating histories and more established relationships with customers and users, and they can use their experience and resources in ways that could affect MALKA’s competitive position, including by making acquisitions, investing aggressively in research and development, aggressively initiating intellectual property claims (whether or not meritorious) and competing aggressively for advertisers and websites. Emerging start-ups may be able to innovate and provide products and services faster than we can. MALKA’s operating results may suffer if its digital content is not appropriately timed with market opportunities, or if its digital content is not effectively brought to market. As technology continues to develop, MALKA may be forced to compete in different ways and expend significant resources in order to remain competitive. If MALKA’s competitors are more successful than MALKA is in developing compelling content or in attracting and retaining clients, MALKA’s revenues and operating results could be adversely affected.

Demand for our products or services may decline if we do not continue to innovate or respond to evolving technological or other changes.

We operate in a dynamic industry characterized by rapidly evolving technology, frequent product introductions and competition based on pricing and other differentiators. We rely on our proprietary technology to make the MoneyLion platform available to customers, to service customers and to introduce new products. In addition, we may increasingly rely on technological innovation as we introduce new types of products, expand our current products into new markets, and continue to streamline the MoneyLion platform. The process of developing new technologies and products is complex, and if we are unable to successfully innovate and continue to deliver a superior customer experience, customers’ demand for our products may decrease and our growth and operations may be harmed. Participants in our industry also compete on price, and our ability to meet the demand of our customers in this respect could affect our ability to maintain demand for our products and services.

In addition, our subsidiary, MALKA, provides digital media and content production services to clients in entertainment, sports, gaming, live streaming and other sectors. To the extent that MALKA is unable to successfully innovate and provide superior services to its clients, these actions could reduce demand for certain services provided by MALKA, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial position.

Any acquisitions, strategic investments, entries into new businesses, joint ventures, divestitures and other transactions could fail to achieve strategic objectives, disrupt our ongoing operations or result in operating difficulties, liabilities and expenses, harm our business and negatively impact our results of operations.

We have and will continue to evaluate and consider strategic transactions, combinations, acquisitions, dispositions or alliances, or other entries into new businesses. These transactions, including the recently completed acquisitions of MALKA and Even Financial, could be material to our financial condition and results of operations if consummated. If we are able to identify an appropriate business opportunity, we may not be successful in negotiating favorable terms and/or consummating the transaction and, even if we do consummate such a transaction, we may be unable to obtain the benefits or avoid the difficulties and risks of such transaction.

Any strategic transaction, combination, acquisition, disposition or alliance we have entered into, including the recently completed acquisitions of MALKA and Even Financial, or may enter into in the future will involve risks encountered in business relationships, including:

•        difficulties in assimilating and integrating the operations, personnel, systems, data, technologies, products and services of the acquired business;

•        inability of the acquired technologies, products or businesses to achieve expected levels of revenue, profitability, productivity or other benefits;

•        difficulties in retaining, training, motivating and integrating key personnel;

•        diversion of management’s time and resources from our normal daily operations;

•        difficulties in successfully incorporating licensed or acquired technology and rights into our platform;

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•        difficulties in maintaining uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies within the combined organizations;

•        difficulties in retaining relationships with customers, employees and suppliers of the acquired business;

•        risks of entering markets in which we have no or limited direct prior experience;

•        regulatory risks, including remaining in good standing with existing regulatory bodies or receiving any necessary pre-closing or post-closing approvals, as well as being subject to new regulators with oversight over an acquired business;

•        assumption of contractual obligations that contain terms that are not beneficial to us, require us to license or waive intellectual property rights or increase our risk for liability;

•        failure to successfully further develop the acquired technology;

•        liability for activities of the acquired or disposed of business before the acquisition or disposition, including patent and trademark infringement claims, violations of laws, regulatory actions, commercial disputes, tax liabilities and other known and unknown liabilities;

•        difficulty in separating assets and replacing shared services;

•        assumption of exposure to performance of any acquired loan portfolios;

•        potential disruptions to our ongoing businesses; and

•        unexpected costs and unknown risks and liabilities associated with strategic transactions.

We may not make any transactions, combinations, acquisitions, dispositions or alliances, or any such transactions, combinations, acquisitions, dispositions or alliances may not be successful, may not benefit our business strategy, may not generate sufficient revenue to offset the associated costs or may not otherwise result in the intended benefits. It may take us longer than expected to fully realize the anticipated benefits and synergies of these transactions, and those benefits and synergies may ultimately be smaller than anticipated or may not be realized at all, which could adversely affect our business and operating results.

Our recent acquisitions of MALKA and Even Financial include both cash consideration and issuance of equity. Any future transactions, combinations, acquisitions, dispositions or alliances may also require us to issue additional equity securities, spend our cash, or incur debt (and increased interest expense), liabilities and amortization expenses related to intangible assets or write-offs of goodwill, which could adversely affect our results of operations and dilute the economic and voting rights of our stockholders and the interests of holders of our indebtedness.

We may not be successful in identifying businesses or opportunities that meet our acquisition or expansion criteria. Even if a potential acquisition target or other strategic investment is identified, we may not be successful in completing such acquisition or integrating such new business or other investment. For example, we may not be successful in completing the integration of the MALKA business or the Even Financial business with our business. We expect that completing the integration process for each acquisition will require significant additional time and resources, and we may not be able to manage the process successfully. It is possible that we will experience disruption of our, MALKA’s or Even Financial’s ongoing businesses.

In addition, we cannot assure you that any future acquisition of new businesses or technology will lead to the successful development of new or enhanced products and services or that any new or enhanced products and services, if developed, will achieve market acceptance or prove to be profitable. Further, we may also choose to divest certain businesses or product lines that no longer fit with our strategic objectives. If we decide to sell assets or a business, we may have difficulty obtaining terms acceptable to us in a timely manner, or at all. Additionally, the terms of such potential transactions may expose us to ongoing obligations and liabilities.

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Because we rely on third parties to provide services, we could be adversely impacted if they fail to fulfill their obligations or if our arrangements with them are terminated and suitable replacements cannot be found on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

We depend on certain key third-party partners, service providers and vendors for certain products and services. The success of our business depends in part on our ability to work with a bank partner, currently MetaBank, to provide our customers with deposit accounts and debit cards facilitated through our platform. We are also dependent on our relationship with DriveWealth LLC (“DriveWealth”), a third-party broker-dealer partner, which provides brokerage and related services for the investment accounts facilitated through our platform, as well as with Zero Hash (as defined herein), a third-party digital asset settlement provider, which provides certain digital currency-related products and services to our customers. Any changes in these relationships or loss of these partners could degrade the functionality of our products and services, impose additional costs or requirements or give preferential treatment to competitors’ services, including their own services, and materially and adversely affect usage of our products and services. In the event our agreements with these third parties are terminated, or if upon their expiration we are unable to renew the contracts on terms favorable to us, or at all, it may be difficult for us to replace these services, which may adversely affect our operations and profitability. Some of these organizations and third-party service providers provide similar services and technology to our competitors, and we do not have long-term or exclusive contracts with them.

In addition, we rely on relationships with third-party partners to obtain and maintain customers. Our ability to acquire new customers could be materially harmed if we are unable to enter into or maintain these relationships on terms that are commercially reasonable to us, or at all.

Our systems and operations or those of our third-party service providers could be exposed to damage or interruption from, among other things, financial insolvency, bankruptcy, contractual default, or adverse regulatory changes. In addition, we may be unable to renew our existing contracts with our most significant third-party relationships, MetaBank and DriveWealth, or they may stop providing or otherwise supporting the products and services we obtain from them, and we may not be able to obtain these or similar products or services on the same or similar terms as our existing arrangements, if at all. The failure of these third-party providers to perform their obligations and provide the products and services we obtain from them in a timely manner for any reason could adversely affect our operations and profitability.

If we fail to comply with the applicable requirements of our third-party partners, they could seek to suspend or terminate our accounts, which could adversely affect our business.

We rely on agreements with MetaBank, DriveWealth, Zero Hash and other third-party providers to provide deposit accounts, debit card services, investment advisory services and cryptocurrency-related services. These agreements and corresponding regulations governing banks and financial institutions may give them substantial discretion in approving certain aspects of our business practices, including our application and qualification procedures for customers and require us to comply with certain legal requirements. Our financial institution partners’ discretionary actions under these agreements could impose material limitations to, or have a material adverse effect on, our business, financial condition and results of operations. Without these relationships, we would not be able to service our deposit accounts, debit cards, investment accounts and cryptocurrency accounts, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, our financial results could be adversely affected if our costs associated with such relationships materially change or if any penalty or claim for damages is imposed as a result of our breach of the agreement with them or their other requirements.

We rely on third-party service providers for payment processing and other functions that are important to our operations. The loss of those service providers could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, if a third-party service provider fails to comply with legal or regulatory requirements or otherwise to perform these functions properly, our business may be adversely affected.

We rely on third-party service providers to perform various functions relating to our business, including underwriting, fraud detection, marketing, operational functions, cloud infrastructure services, information technology and telecommunications, and, because we are not a bank and cannot belong to or directly access the ACH payment network, ACH processing and debit card payment processing. While we oversee these service providers to ensure they provide services in accordance with our agreements and regulatory requirements, we do not have control over the operations of any of the third-party service providers that we utilize. In the event that a third-party service provider

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for any reason fails to perform such functions, including through negligence, willful misconduct or fraud, our ability to process payments and perform other operational functions for which we currently rely on such third-party service providers will suffer and our business, cash flows and future prospects may be negatively impacted.

Additionally, if one or more key third-party service providers were to cease to exist, to become a debtor in a bankruptcy or an insolvency proceeding or to seek relief under any debtor relief laws or to terminate its relationship with us, there could be delays in our ability to process payments and perform other operational functions for which we are currently relying on such third-party service provider, and we may not be able to promptly replace such third-party service provider with a different third-party service provider that has the ability to promptly provide the same services in the same manner and on the same economic terms. As a result of any such delay or inability to replace such key third-party service provider, our ability to process payments and perform other business functions could suffer and our business, cash flows and future prospects may be negatively impacted.

A significant change in consumer confidence in our products and services or adverse publicity concerning us, our business or our personnel could negatively impact our business.

We have developed a strong and trusted brand that has contributed significantly to the success of our business. We believe that maintaining and promoting our brand in a cost-effective manner is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our products and services, retaining existing customers on our platform and expanding our base of customers.

Maintaining and promoting our brand will depend largely on our ability to continue to provide useful, reliable, secure and innovative products and services, the effectiveness of our marketing efforts, the experience of existing customers and our ability to maintain trust and remain a leading financial services platform. We may introduce, or make changes to, features, products, services, privacy practices or terms of service that customers do not like, which may materially and adversely affect our brand. Our efforts to build our brand have involved significant expense, and we expect to increase our marketing spend in the near term. Our brand promotion activities, including efforts and initiatives to create personalized content using MALKA’s digital media and content production services, may not generate customer awareness or increase revenue, and even if they do, any increase in revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. Additionally, the successful protection and maintenance of our brand will depend on our ability to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce trademark and other intellectual property protection for our brand. If we fail to successfully promote, protect and maintain our brand or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, we may lose our existing merchants and customers to our competitors or be unable to attract new merchants and customers. Any such loss of existing merchants or customers, or inability to attract new merchants or customers, would have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Harm to our brand can arise from many sources, including failure by us or our partners and service providers to satisfy expectations of service and quality, inadequate protection or misuse of personally identifiable information (“PII”), compliance failures and claims, litigation and other claims, misconduct by our partners or other counterparties or any other negative publicity concerning our company or key personnel, including management and MALKA’s content creators. We have been, from time to time and may in the future be, the target of incomplete, inaccurate and misleading or false statements about our company and our business that could damage our brand and deter customers from adopting our services.

Any negative publicity relating to the individuals or entities that we employ or contract with or that otherwise represent our company, including from reported or actual incidents or allegations of illegal or improper conduct, such as harassment, discrimination or other misconduct, as well as any negative publicity about our industry or our company, the quality and reliability of our products and services, our compliance and risk management processes, changes to our products and services, our ability to effectively manage and resolve customer complaints, our privacy, data protection and information security practices, litigation, regulatory licensing and infrastructure, and the experience of our customers with our products or services, could result in significant media attention, even if not directly relating to or involving MoneyLion. This could also have a negative impact on our reputation, potentially resulting in termination of contracts, our inability to attract new customer or client relationships or the loss or termination of such employees’ services. If we do not successfully maintain a strong and trusted brand, our business could be materially and adversely affected.

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Companies periodically review and change their advertising and marketing business models and relationships. If MALKA, our wholly-owned subsidiary, is unable to remain competitive or retain key clients, its business and results of operations and financial position may be adversely affected.

From time to time, MALKA’s clients put their advertising and marketing business up for competitive review. Key competitive considerations for retaining existing business and winning new business include the quality and effectiveness of the advertising and marketing services that MALKA offers and the content that it produces, actions taken by MALKA’s competitors to enhance their offerings, whether MALKA meets the expectations of its customers, its ability to efficiently serve clients, particularly large international clients, on a broad geographic basis and a number of other factors. To the extent that MALKA is not able to remain competitive or retain key clients, its revenue may be materially adversely affected, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial position. In addition, many factors can affect corporate spending, including economic conditions, changes in tax rates and tax laws and inflation, and any reduction in client spending or a delay in client payments could significantly impact MALKA’s operating results. While corporate spending may decline at any time for reasons beyond our or MALKA’s control, the risks associated with MALKA’s business become more acute in periods of a slowing economy or recession, which may be accompanied by reductions in corporate sponsorship and advertising.

If the information provided to us by customers is incorrect or fraudulent, we may misjudge a customer’s qualifications to receive our products and services and our results of operations may be harmed and could subject us to regulatory scrutiny or penalties.

Our decisions to provide many of our products and services to our customers are based partly on information customers provide to us or authorize us to receive. To the extent that these customers provide information to us in a manner that we are unable to verify, our decisioning process may not accurately reflect the associated risk. In addition, data provided by third-party sources, including consumer reporting agencies, is a component of our credit decisions and this data may contain inaccuracies. Inaccurate analysis of credit data that could result from false loan application information could harm our reputation, business and results of operations.

In addition, we use identity and fraud prevention tools to analyze data provided by external databases to authenticate each applicant’s identity. From time to time, these checks have failed and there is a risk that these checks could fail in the future, and fraud, which may be significant, may occur. We may not be able to recoup funds underlying loans or associated with our other services made in connection with inaccurate statements, omissions of fact or fraud, in which case our revenue, results of operations and profitability will be harmed. Fraudulent activity or significant increases in fraudulent activity could also lead to regulatory intervention, which could negatively impact our results of operations, brand and reputation, and require us to take steps to reduce fraud risk, which could increase our costs.

Many of our investment advisory customers are first-time investors and our revenues could be reduced if these customers stop investing altogether or stop using our platform for their investing activities.

Our business model focuses on making the financial markets accessible to a broad demographic of retail investors. In each of the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, over half of our customers for the applicable period were first-time investors. Our success, and our ability to increase revenues and operate profitably, depends in part on such customers continuing to utilize our platform, even as global social and economic conditions shift. However, our customers do not have long-term contractual arrangements with us and can utilize our platform on a transaction-by-transaction basis and may also cease to use our platform at any time or use a competitor’s platform. We may face particular challenges in retaining these investors as customers, for example as a result of a return to pre-COVID-19 behaviors, increased volatility in the financial markets or increasing availability of competing products that seek to target the same demographic. In particular, a broad decline or volatility in the equity or other financial markets could result in some of these investors exiting the markets and leaving our platform. Any significant loss of these customers or a significant reduction in their use of our platform could have a material impact on our investment volumes and revenues, and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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If loans and other receivables originated through our platform do not perform, or significantly underperform, we may incur financial losses on the receivables we originate or lose the confidence of our financing sources.

Any significant underperformance of the loans and other receivables facilitated through our platform, especially if they underperform compared to those generated by our competitors, may adversely impact our relationship with our funding sources and result in their loss of confidence in us, which could lead to the termination of our existing funding arrangements. Any requirement that we increase the amount of receivables we hold on our balance sheet due to a decrease or termination by our funding sources in their investments in our credit products and other consumer receivables could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.

Borrowers may prepay a loan at any time without penalty, which could reduce our revenue and limit our ability to obtain financing for our lending operations.

A borrower may decide to prepay all or a portion of the remaining principal amount on a loan at any time without penalty. If the entire or a significant portion of the remaining unpaid principal amount of a loan is prepaid, we would receive significantly lower interest associated with such prepaid loan. Prepayments may occur for a variety of reasons, including if interest rates decrease after a loan is made. If a significant volume of prepayments occurs, the amount of our servicing fees would decline, which could harm our business and results of operations. Our data-driven models are designed to predict prepayment rates. However, if a significant volume of prepayments occur that our models do not accurately predict, returns targeted by our financing sources in our loan funding programs would be adversely affected and our ability to attract new investors would be negatively affected.

We service all of the loans and advances we originate. A failure by us to service loans or advances properly could result in lost revenue and negatively impact our business and operations or subject us to regulatory scrutiny or penalties.

We service all of the loans and advances we originate. Any failure on our part to perform functions related to our servicing activities to properly service our loans or advances could result in a significant decrease in the amount of loans or advances we service and therefore adversely impact the amount of revenue generated from interest income.

We rely on a variety of funding sources to support our business model. If our existing funding arrangements are not renewed or replaced or our existing funding sources are unwilling or unable to provide funding to us on terms acceptable to us, or at all, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and future prospects.

To support the origination of loans and other receivables on our platform and the growth of our business, we must maintain a variety of funding arrangements. If we are unable to maintain access to, or expand, our funding arrangements, our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

We cannot guarantee that these funding arrangements will continue to be available on favorable terms or at all, and our funding strategy may change over time and depends on the availability of such funding arrangements. For example, disruptions in the credit markets or other factors, such as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, could adversely affect the availability, diversity, cost and terms of our funding arrangements. The broad impact of COVID-19 on the financial markets has created uncertainty and volatility in many funding markets and with many funding sources. In addition, our funding sources may reassess their exposure to our industry and either curtail access to uncommitted financing capacity, fail to renew or extend facilities, or impose higher costs to access our funding.

In addition, there can be no assurances that we would be able to extend or replace our existing funding arrangements at maturity, on reasonable terms or at all. If our existing funding arrangements are not renewed or replaced or our existing funding sources are unwilling or unable to provide funding on terms acceptable to us, or at all, we would need to secure additional sources of funding or reduce our operations significantly. Further, as the volume of loans and other receivables facilitated through our platform increases, we may require the expansion of our funding capacity under our existing funding arrangements or the addition of new sources of capital. The availability and diversity of our funding arrangements depends on various factors and are subject to numerous risks, many of which are outside of our control.

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The agreements governing our funding arrangements require us to comply with certain covenants. A breach of such covenants or other events of default under our funding agreements could result in the reduction or termination of our access to such funding, could increase our cost of such funding or, in some cases, could give our lenders the right to require repayment of the loans prior to their scheduled maturity. Certain of these covenants and restrictions limit our and our subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things: incur additional debt; create liens on certain assets; pay dividends on or make distributions in respect of their capital stock or make other restricted payments; consolidate, merge, sell, or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of their assets; and enter into certain transactions with their affiliates. Our senior credit facility also contains certain financial maintenance covenants that require us and our subsidiaries to maintain a certain income level each quarter, and to maintain a minimum level of unrestricted cash while any borrowings under the senior credit facility are outstanding.

In the event of a sudden or unexpected shortage of funds in the financial system, we may not be able to maintain necessary levels of funding without incurring high funding costs, a reduction in the term or size of funding instruments, and/or the liquidation of certain assets. In such a case, if we are unable to arrange new or alternative methods of financing on favorable terms, we would have to reduce our transaction volume, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and future prospects.

We may be unsuccessful in managing the effects of changes in the cost of capital on our business.

In the future, we may seek to access the capital markets to obtain capital to develop new technologies, expand our business, respond to competitive pressures and make acquisitions. We may try to raise additional funds through public or private financings, strategic relationships or other arrangements. However, our future access to the capital markets and ability to obtain debt or equity funding could be restricted due to a variety of factors, including a deterioration of our earnings, cash flows, balance sheet quality, our credit rating, investor interest or overall business or industry prospects, our share price, interest rates, adverse regulatory changes, a disruption to or volatility or deterioration in the state of the capital markets, or a negative bias toward our industry by market participants. Due to the negative bias toward our industry, certain financial institutions have restricted access to available financing by participants in our industry, and we may have more limited access to institutional capital than other businesses. Future prevailing capital market conditions and potential disruptions in the capital markets may adversely affect our efforts to arrange additional financing on terms that are satisfactory to us, if at all. In addition, our share price has been and may continue to be volatile and any limitation on market liquidity or reduction in the price of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock, including as a result of a delisting of our securities from a national exchange, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available, or are not available on acceptable terms, we may not have sufficient liquidity to fund our operations, make future investments, take advantage of acquisitions or other opportunities, or respond to competitive challenges and this, in turn, could adversely affect our ability to advance our strategic plans. In addition, if the capital and credit markets experience volatility, and the availability of funds is limited, third parties with whom we do business may incur increased costs or business disruption and this could adversely affect our business relationships with such third parties, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and future prospects.

If we succeed in raising additional funds through the issuance of equity or equity-linked securities, then existing stockholders could experience substantial dilution. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of debt securities or preferred stock, these new securities would have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of the holders of our common stock. In addition, any such issuance could subject us to restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. Further, to the extent we incur additional indebtedness or such other obligations, the risks associated with our existing debt, including our possible inability to service our existing debt, would increase.

We depend on our key personnel and other highly skilled personnel, and if we fail to attract, retain and motivate our personnel, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our success significantly depends on the continued service of our senior management team, including Diwakar (Dee) Choubey, our Co-Founder and Chief Executive Officer, and Rick Correia, our Chief Financial Officer, and other highly skilled personnel. Our success also depends on our ability to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain highly qualified personnel for all areas of our organization.

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Competition for highly skilled personnel, including engineering and data analytics personnel, is extremely intense, particularly in New York where our headquarters is located. We have experienced, and expect to continue to face, difficulty identifying and hiring qualified personnel in many areas and may also encounter difficulties in retaining key employees of acquired companies, especially as we pursue our growth strategy. Further, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, a large and increasing number of companies have adopted permanent work-from-home policies, which further increases the challenges associated with hiring and retaining qualified personnel. We may not be able to hire or retain such personnel at compensation or flexibility levels consistent with our existing compensation and salary structure and policies. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced employees have greater resources than we have and may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment. In particular, candidates making employment decisions, specifically in high-technology industries, often consider the value of any equity they may receive in connection with their employment. Any significant volatility in the price of our stock may adversely affect our ability to attract or retain highly skilled technical, financial and marketing personnel.

In addition, we invest significant time and expense in training our employees, which increases their value to competitors who may seek to recruit them. If we fail to retain our employees, we could incur significant expenses in hiring and training their replacements. While we are in the process of training their replacements, the quality of our services and our ability to serve our customers could decline, resulting in an adverse effect on our business.

Increases in the costs of content may have an adverse effect on MALKA’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

The success of the business of our subsidiary, MALKA, is dependent in part on its ability to produce popular content. The production of such content depends on MALKA’s ability to retain its content creators. As MALKA’s business develops, MALKA may incur increasing revenue-sharing costs to compensate its content creators for producing original content. MALKA relies on its team to generate creative ideas for original content and to supervise the original content origination and production process, and MALKA intends to continue to invest resources in content production. If MALKA is not able to compete effectively for talent or attract and retain top influencers at reasonable costs, MALKA’s original content production capabilities would be negatively impacted.

Our engineering and technical development teams are based primarily in Malaysia, which could be adversely affected by changes in political or economic stability or by government policies.

Our engineering and technical development teams operate a foreign office in Malaysia, which is subject to relatively higher degrees of political and social instability than the United States and may lack the infrastructure to withstand political unrest or natural disasters. The political or regulatory climate in the United States, or elsewhere, also could change so that it would not be lawful or practical for us to use international operations in the manner in which we currently use them. If we had to curtail or cease operations in Malaysia and transfer some or all of these operations to another geographic area, we would incur significant transition costs as well as higher future overhead costs that could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. In many foreign countries, particularly in those with developing economies, it may be common to engage in business practices that are prohibited by laws and regulations applicable to us, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (“FCPA”). Any violations of the FCPA or local anti-corruption laws by us, our subsidiaries or our local agents could have an adverse effect on our business and reputation and result in substantial financial penalties or other sanctions.

Our ability to collect payments on our financial products and services and maintain accurate accounts may be adversely affected by computer malware, social engineering, phishing, physical or electronic break-ins, undetected technical errors, bugs and similar disruptions.

The automated nature of our platform may make it an attractive target for hacking and potentially vulnerable to computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins and similar disruptions. It is possible that we may not be able to anticipate or to implement effective preventive measures against all security breaches of these types, in which case there would be an increased risk of fraud or identity theft, and we may experience losses on, or delays in the collection of amounts owed on, a fraudulently induced loan or payments relating to our other products and services. Security breaches could occur from outside our company, and also from the actions of persons inside our company who may have authorized or unauthorized access to our technology systems. Furthermore, any failure of our computer systems could cause an interruption in operations and result in disruptions in, or reductions in the amount of, collections on fees and other amounts from our customers.

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Additionally, if hackers were able to access our secure files, they might be able to gain access to the personal information of our customers. If we are unable to prevent such activity, we may be subject to significant liability, negative publicity and a material loss of customers, all of which may negatively affect our business.

Our platform and internal systems, and those of third parties upon whom we rely, rely on software that is highly technical, and if it contains undetected technical errors, our business could be adversely affected.

Our platform and internal systems rely on software that is highly technical and complex. In addition, our platform and internal systems depend on the ability of such software to store, retrieve, process and manage high volumes of data. The software upon which we rely may from time to time contain undetected technical errors or bugs. Some technical errors or bugs may only be discovered after the code has been released for external or internal use. Technical errors or other design defects within the software upon which we rely may result in failure to accurately predict a loan applicant’s creditworthiness or the suitability of other applicants for our other products and services, failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, approval of sub-optimally priced loans, incorrectly displayed interest rates or other fees to borrowers and other customers, or incorrectly charged interest or fees to borrowers and other customers, third-party partners or institutional investors, failure to detect fraudulent activity on our platform, our inability to accurately evaluate potential customers, a negative experience for customers or third-party partners, delayed introductions of new features or enhancements or failure to protect customer data, our intellectual property or other sensitive data or proprietary information. Any technical errors, bugs or defects discovered in the software upon which we rely could result in harm to our reputation, loss of customers or bank partners, increased regulatory scrutiny, fines or penalties, loss of revenue or liability for damages, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Some aspects of our business processes include open-source software, which poses risks that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any failure to comply with the terms of one or more of these open-source licenses could negatively affect our business.

We incorporate open-source software into processes supporting our business and anticipate using open-source software in the future. Such open-source software may include software covered by licenses like the GNU General Public License and the Apache License. The terms of various open-source licenses to which we are subject have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to operate our systems, limits our use of the software, inhibits certain aspects of our systems and negatively affects our business operations.

Some open-source licenses contain requirements that we make source code modifications or derivative works we create publicly available or make available on unfavorable terms or at no cost, based upon the type of open-source software we use.

While we monitor our use of open-source software and try to ensure that none is used in a manner that would require us to disclose our proprietary source code or that would otherwise breach the terms of an open-source license, such use could inadvertently occur, or could be claimed to have occurred, in part because open-source license terms are often ambiguous. We may face claims from third parties claiming ownership of, or demanding the release or license of, modifications or derivative works that we have developed using such open-source software (which could include our proprietary source code or artificial intelligence (“AI”) models), or otherwise seeking to enforce the terms of the applicable open-source license. These claims could result in litigation and if portions of our proprietary AI models or software are determined to be subject to an open-source license, or if the license terms for the open-source software that we incorporate change, we could be required to publicly release all or affected portions of our source code, purchase a costly license, cease offering the implicated products or services unless and until we can re-engineer such source code in a manner that avoids infringement, discontinue or delay the provision of our offerings if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely basis or change our business activities, any of which could negatively affect our business operations and potentially our intellectual property rights. In addition, the re-engineering process could require us to expend significant additional research and development resources, and we may not be able to complete the re-engineering process successfully. If we were required to publicly disclose any portion of our proprietary models, it is possible we could lose the benefit of trade secret protection for our models.

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In addition to risks related to license requirements, the use of certain open-source software can lead to greater risks than the use of third-party commercial software, as open-source licensors generally do not provide support, warranties, indemnification, controls or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the origin of the software. There is little legal precedent in this area, and any actual or claimed requirement to disclose our proprietary source code or pay damages for breach of contract could harm our business and could help third parties, including our competitors, develop products and services that are similar to or better than ours. Use of open-source software may also present additional security risks because the public availability of such software may make it easier for hackers and other third parties to determine how to breach our website and systems that rely on open-source software. Any of these risks associated with the use of open-source software could be difficult to eliminate or manage, and if not addressed, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Systems defects, failures or disruptions, including events beyond our control, and resulting interruptions in the availability of our websites, applications, products, or services could harm our business, harm our reputation, result in significant costs to us, decrease our potential profitability and expose us to substantial liability.

We use vendors, such as our cloud computing web services provider, account transaction and card processing companies, and third-party software providers, in the operation of our platform. The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our technology and our underlying network and infrastructure are critical to our operations and reputation and the ability of our platform to attract new and retain existing customers. We rely on these vendors to protect their systems and facilities against damage or service interruptions from natural disasters, power or telecommunications failures, air quality issues, environmental conditions, computer viruses or attempts to harm these systems, criminal acts, unauthorized access, sabotage, acts of vandalism, military actions, negligence, human errors, fraud, spikes in platform use and denial of service issues, hardware failures, improper operation, cyberattacks, data loss, wars and similar events. If our arrangement with a vendor is terminated or if there is a lapse of service or damage to its systems or facilities, we could experience interruptions in our ability to operate our platform. We also may experience increased costs and difficulties in replacing that vendor and replacement services may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, on a timely basis, or at all.

In addition, our platform is accessed by many customers, often at the same time. As we continue to expand the number of our customers, and products and services available through our platform, we may not be able to scale our technology to accommodate the increased capacity requirements. The failure of data centers, internet service providers or other third-party service providers to meet our capacity requirements could result in interruptions or delays in access to our platform or impede our ability to grow our business and scale our operations. Any interruptions or delays in our platform availability, whether as a result of a failure to perform on the part of a vendor, any damage to one of our vendor’s systems or facilities, the termination of any of our third-party vendor agreements, software failures, our or our vendor’s error, natural disasters, terrorism, other man-made problems, security breaches, whether accidental or willful, or other factors, could harm our relationships with our customers, prevent our customers from accessing their accounts, damage our reputation with current and potential customers, expose us to liability, cause us to lose customers, cause the loss of critical data, prevent us from supporting our platform, products or services or cause us to incur additional expense in arranging for new facilities and support or otherwise harm our business and also harm our reputation.

In addition, we source certain information from third parties. For example, our risk-scoring model is based on algorithms that evaluate a number of factors and currently depend on sourcing certain information from third parties, including consumer reporting agencies. In the event that any third party from which we source information experiences a service disruption, whether as a result of maintenance, natural disasters, terrorism, or security breaches, whether accidental or willful, or other factors, the ability to score and decision loan applications and applications for our other products and services through our platform may be adversely impacted. Additionally, there may be errors contained in the information provided by third parties. This may result in the inability to approve otherwise qualified applicants through our platform, which may adversely impact our business by negatively impacting our reputation and reducing our transaction volume.

To the extent we use or are dependent on any particular third-party data, technology, or software, we may also be harmed if such data, technology, or software becomes non-compliant with existing regulations or industry standards, becomes subject to third-party claims of intellectual property infringement, misappropriation, or other violation, or malfunctions or functions in a way we did not anticipate. Any loss of the right to use any of this data, technology, or software could result in delays in the provisioning of our products and services until equivalent or replacement data,

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technology, or software is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained, and integrated, and there is no guarantee that we would be successful in developing, identifying, obtaining, or integrating equivalent or similar data, technology, or software, which could result in the loss or limiting of our products, services, or features available in our products or services.

In addition, in the event of damage or interruption, our insurance policies may not adequately compensate us for any losses that we may incur. Our disaster recovery plan has not been tested under actual disaster conditions, and we may not have sufficient capacity to recover all data and services in the event of an outage. Furthermore, prolonged interruption in the availability, or reduction in the speed or other functionality, of our platform, products or services could materially harm our reputation and business. Any of the foregoing could prevent us from processing transactions or posting payments on our platform, damage our brand and reputation, divert the attention of our employees, reduce our revenue, subject us to liability and cause customers to abandon our platform, any of which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.

Real or perceived inaccuracies in our key operating metrics may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business.

We track certain key operating metrics such as total payment volume, Total Originations and Total Customers (each as defined herein) with internal systems and tools that are not independently verified by any third party. While the metrics presented are based on what we believe to be reasonable assumptions and estimates, our internal systems and tools have a number of limitations, and our methodologies for tracking these metrics may change over time. In addition, limitations or errors with respect to how we measure data or with respect to the data that we measure may affect our understanding of certain details of our business, which could affect our long-term strategies. If the internal systems and tools we use to track these metrics understate or overstate performance or contain algorithmic or other technical errors, the key operating metrics we report may not be accurate. If investors do not perceive our operating metrics to be accurate, or if we discover material inaccuracies with respect to these figures, our reputation may be significantly harmed, and our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

We have a history of losses and may not achieve profitability in the future.

Our net losses were $164.9 million and $41.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of December 31, 2021, we had a total accumulated deficit of $465.3 million. We may continue to incur net losses in the future, and such losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter. We will need to generate and sustain significant revenues for our business generally, and achieve greater scale and generate greater operating cash flows in future periods in order to achieve, maintain or increase our level of profitability. We intend to continue to invest in sales and marketing, technology and new products and services in order to enhance our brand recognition and our value proposition to our customers, and these additional costs will create further challenges to generating near-term profitability. We also expect general and administrative expenses to increase to meet the increased compliance and other requirements associated with operating as a public company and evolving regulatory requirements.

Our efforts to grow our business may be more costly than we expect, and we may not be able to increase our revenue sufficiently to offset our higher operating expenses. We may continue to incur losses and not achieve future profitability or, if achieved, be unable to maintain such profitability, due to a number of reasons, including the risks described in “Risk Factors” herein, unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays and other unknown events.

Risks Relating to Financial Regulation

Our business is subject to extensive regulation, examination and oversight in a variety of areas, including registration and licensing requirements under federal, state and local laws and regulations.

We are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination under United States federal and state laws and regulations. Regulators have broad discretion with respect to the interpretation, implementation and enforcement of these laws and regulations, including through enforcement actions that could subject us to civil money penalties, customer remediations, increased compliance costs and limits or prohibitions on our ability to offer certain products or services or to engage in certain activities. Any failure or perceived failure to comply with any of these laws or regulations could subject us to lawsuits or governmental actions and/or damage our reputation, which could materially

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and adversely affect our business. In addition, to the extent that we undertake actions requiring regulatory approval or non-objection, regulators may make their approval or non-objection subject to conditions or restrictions that could have a material adverse effect on our business. Moreover, any competitors subject to different, or in some cases less restrictive, legislative or regulatory regimes may have or obtain a competitive advantage over us.

We are subject to the regulatory and enforcement authority of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”), which oversees compliance with federal consumer financial protection laws. In addition, if the CFPB were to expand its supervisory authority by promulgating new regulations, it is possible that the CFPB could be permitted to conduct periodic examination of our business, which may increase our risk of regulatory or enforcement actions. Further, we are regulated by many state regulatory agencies through licensing and other supervisory or enforcement authority, which includes regular examination by state governmental authorities.

In addition, our wholly-owned subsidiary, ML Wealth LLC (“ML Wealth”), is registered as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the “Advisers Act”) and is subject to regulation by the SEC. The Advisers Act, together with related regulations and interpretations of the SEC, impose numerous obligations and restrictions on investment advisers, including requirements relating to the safekeeping of client funds and securities, limitations on advertising, disclosure and reporting obligations, prohibitions on fraudulent activities, restrictions on agency cross and principal transactions between an adviser and its advisory clients and other detailed operating requirements, as well as general fiduciary obligations. We also have a wholly-owned subsidiary, MoneyLion Securities LLC, which is a broker-dealer and is therefore registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and a member of Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”). Although we do not currently engage in any business activity through MoneyLion Securities LLC, as a broker-dealer, it is subject to SEC and FINRA rules and regulations.

We are also subject to potential enforcement and other actions that may be brought by state attorneys general or other state enforcement authorities and other governmental agencies. Any such actions could result in civil money penalties and fines, customer remediations, increased compliance costs, damage to our reputation and brand and limits or prohibitions of our ability to offer certain products and services or engage in certain business practices. Further, in some cases, regardless of fault, it may be less time-consuming or costly to settle these matters, which may require us to implement certain changes to our business practices, provide remediation to certain individuals or make a settlement payment to a given party or regulatory body.

The legal and regulatory regimes governing certain of our products and services are uncertain and evolving. Changing laws, regulations, interpretations or regulatory enforcement priorities may negatively impact the management of our business, results of operations, ability to offer certain products or the terms and conditions upon which they are offered and ability to compete.

We are required to comply with constantly changing federal, state and local laws and regulations that regulate, among other things, the terms of the loans and other consumer receivables that we originate and the associated fees that may be charged. Federal and state regulators of consumer financial products and services are also enforcing existing laws, regulations and rules more aggressively and enhancing their supervisory expectations regarding the management of legal and regulatory compliance risks. Changes in the laws, regulations and enforcement priorities applicable to our business could have a material impact on our business model, operations and financial position.

Such laws and regulations are complex and require us to incur significant expenses and devote significant management attention to ensure compliance. In addition, our failure to comply (or to ensure that our agents and third-party service providers comply) with these laws or regulations may result in litigation or enforcement actions, the penalties for which could include: revocation of licenses and registrations; fines and other monetary penalties; civil and criminal liability; substantially reduced payments by our customers; modification of the original terms of loans and other products, permanent forgiveness of debt, or inability to, directly or indirectly, collect all or a part of the principal of or interest on loans or other amounts owed by our customers; and indemnification claims. Such consequences could, among other things, require changes to our business practices and scope of operations or harm our reputation, which in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or business.

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State attorneys general have indicated that they will take a more active role in enforcing consumer protection laws, including through use of Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) provisions that authorize state attorneys general to enforce certain provisions of federal consumer financial laws and obtain civil money penalties and other relief available to the CFPB.

Further, we may not be able to respond quickly or effectively to regulatory, legislative and other developments, and these changes may in turn impair our ability to offer our existing or planned features, products and services and/or increase our cost of doing business. In addition, if our practices are not consistent or viewed as not consistent with legal and regulatory requirements, we may become subject to audits, inquiries, whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations or criminal or civil sanctions, all of which may have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition.

These regulatory changes and uncertainties make our business planning more difficult and could result in changes to our business model and potentially adversely impact the results of our operations. New laws or regulations also require us to incur significant expenses to ensure compliance. As compared to our competitors, we could be subject to more stringent state or local regulations or could incur marginally greater compliance costs as a result of regulatory changes.

Proposals to change the statutes affecting financial services companies are frequently introduced in Congress and state legislatures that, if enacted, may affect our operating environment in substantial and unpredictable ways. In addition, numerous federal and state regulators have the authority to promulgate or change regulations that could have a similar effect on our operating environment. We cannot determine with any degree of certainty whether any such legislative or regulatory proposals will be enacted and, if enacted, the ultimate impact that any such potential legislation or implemented regulations, or any such potential regulatory actions by federal or state regulators, would have upon our business.

In addition, we expect to continue to launch new products and services in the coming years, which may subject us to additional legal and regulatory requirements under federal, state and local laws and regulations, but which we expect to be similar to the legal and regulatory regimes to which we are already subject.

New laws, regulations, policies or changes in enforcement of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business, or reexamination of current practices, could adversely impact our profitability, limit our ability to continue existing or pursue new business activities, require us to change certain of our business practices or alter its relationships with customers, affect retention of key personnel or expose us to additional costs (including increased compliance costs and/or customer remediation). These changes also may require us to invest significant resources or devote significant management attention in order to make any necessary changes and could adversely affect our business.

The regulatory regime governing blockchain technologies and digital assets is uncertain, and new regulations or policies may alter our business practices with respect to digital assets.

We currently offer certain cryptocurrency-related products and services available to our customers through Zero Hash. The Zero Hash entities are registered as money services businesses and have the necessary state-level licenses for engaging in digital assets activities where the Zero Hash services are offered. Although many regulators have provided some guidance, regulation of digital assets based on or incorporating blockchain, such as digital assets and digital asset exchanges, remains uncertain and will continue to evolve. Further, regulation varies significantly among international, federal, state and local jurisdictions. As blockchain networks and blockchain assets have grown in popularity and in market size, federal and state agencies are increasingly taking interest in, and in certain cases regulating, their use and operation. Treatment of virtual currencies continues to evolve under federal and state law. Many U.S. regulators, including the SEC, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, (the “CFTC”), the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) and state regulators including the New York State Department of Financial Services (the “NYSDFS”), have made official pronouncements or issued guidance or rules regarding the treatment of Bitcoin and other digital currencies. The IRS released guidance treating virtual currency as property that is not currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes, although there is no indication yet whether other courts or federal or state regulators will follow this classification. Both federal and state agencies have instituted enforcement actions against those violating their interpretation of existing laws. Other U.S. and many state agencies have offered little official guidance and issued no definitive rules regarding the treatment of digital assets. The CFTC has publicly taken the position that certain virtual currencies, which term includes digital assets, are

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commodities. To the extent that virtual currencies are deemed to fall within the definition of a “commodity interest” under the Commodity Exchange Act (the “CEA”), we may be subject to additional regulation under the CEA and CFTC regulations.

As blockchain technologies and digital assets business activities grow in popularity and market size, and as new digital assets businesses and technologies emerge and proliferate, foreign, federal, state and local regulators revisit and update their laws and policies, and can be expected to continue to do so in the future. Changes in this regulatory environment, including changing interpretations and the implementation of new or varying regulatory requirements by the government, may significantly affect or change the manner in which we currently conduct some aspects of our business.

States may require that we obtain licenses that apply to blockchain technologies and digital assets.

Under the terms of our agreement with Zero Hash, we are not directly involved in any cryptocurrency transactions or the exchange of fiat funds for cryptocurrency at or through Zero Hash, and therefore, we do not currently expect to be subject to money services business, money transmitter licensing, or other licensing or regulatory requirements specific to transactions relating to virtual currencies. However, state and federal regulatory frameworks around virtual currencies continue to evolve and are subject to interpretation and change, which may subject us to additional licensing and other requirements.

In the case of virtual currencies, state regulators such as the NYSDFS have created regulatory frameworks. For example, in July 2014, the NYSDFS proposed the first U.S. regulatory framework for licensing participants in virtual currency business activity. The regulations, known as the “BitLicense”, are intended to focus on consumer protection. The NYSDFS issued its final BitLicense regulatory framework in June 2015. The BitLicense regulates the conduct of businesses that are involved in virtual currencies in New York or with New York customers and prohibits any person or entity involved in such activity from conducting such activities without a license. The Zero Hash entities do not currently hold BitLicenses but they are in the process of obtaining it; therefore we do not currently offer cryptocurrency-related products to our New York customers but we expect to do so in the future.

Other states may adopt similar statutes and regulations which will require us or our partners to obtain a license to conduct digital asset activities. Effective August 1, 2020, Louisiana adopted the Virtual Currency Business Act, which requires an operator of a virtual currency business to obtain a virtual currency license to conduct business in Louisiana, and the Louisiana Office of Financial Institutions issued related guidance in December 2021. Other states, such as Texas, have published guidance on how their existing regulatory regimes governing money transmitters apply to virtual currencies. Some states, such as Alabama, North Carolina and Washington, have amended their state’s statutes to include virtual currencies in existing licensing regimes, while others have interpreted their existing statutes as requiring a money transmitter license to conduct certain virtual currency business activities. The Zero Hash entities are money transmitters or the equivalent in a majority of states and the District of Columbia.

It is likely that, as blockchain technologies and the use of virtual currencies continues to grow, additional states will take steps to monitor the developing industry and may require us or our regulated partners to obtain additional licenses in connection with our virtual currency activity.

If loans made by our lending subsidiaries are found to violate applicable state interest rate limits or other provisions of applicable state lending and other laws, it could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.

We have 37 subsidiaries through which we conduct our consumer lending business. These entities originate loans pursuant to state licenses or applicable exemptions under state law. The loans we originate are subject to state licensing or exemption requirements and interest rate restrictions, as well as numerous state requirements regarding consumer protection, interest rate, disclosure, prohibitions on certain activities and loan term lengths. If the loans we originate were deemed subject to and in violation of certain state consumer finance or other laws, we could be subject to fines, damages, injunctive relief (including required modification or discontinuation of our business in certain areas) and other penalties or consequences, and the loans could be rendered void or unenforceable in whole or in part, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.

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If we operate without having obtained necessary state or local licenses, it could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.

Certain states have adopted laws regulating and requiring licensing, registration, notice filing or other approval by parties that engage in certain activity regarding consumer finance transactions, including facilitating and assisting such transactions in certain circumstances. Furthermore, certain states and localities have also adopted laws requiring licensing, registration, notice filing or other approval for consumer debt collection or servicing and/or purchasing or selling consumer loans. We have also received inquiries from state regulatory agencies regarding requirements to obtain licenses from or register with those states, including in states where we have determined that we are not required to obtain such a license or be registered with the state, and we expect to continue to receive such inquiries. The application of some consumer financial licensing laws to our platform and the related activities it performs is unclear. In addition, state licensing requirements may evolve over time, including, in particular, recent trends toward increased licensing requirements and regulation of parties engaged in loan solicitation activities. If we were found to be in violation of applicable state licensing requirements by a court or a state, federal or local enforcement agency, or agree to resolve such concerns by voluntary agreement, we could be subject to or agree to pay fines, damages, injunctive relief (including required modification or discontinuation of our business in certain areas), criminal penalties and other penalties or consequences, and the loans facilitated through our platform could be rendered void or unenforceable in whole or in part, any of which could have an adverse effect on the enforceability or collectability of the loans facilitated through our platform.

The highly regulated environment in which our third-party financial institution partners operate may subject us to regulation and could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.

Our third-party partners are subject to federal and state supervision and regulation. Federal regulation of the banking and investment industries, along with tax and accounting laws, regulations, rules and standards, may limit their operations significantly and control the methods by which they conduct business. In addition, compliance with laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes to laws and regulations can impose additional compliance requirements. Regulatory requirements affect our third-party partners’ banking, investment and virtual currency practices, among other aspects of their business, and restrict transactions between us and our third-party partners. These requirements may constrain the operations of our third-party partners, and the adoption of new laws and changes to, or repeal of, existing laws may have a further impact on our business and the businesses of our third-party partners.

In choosing whether and how to conduct business with us, current and prospective third-party partners can be expected to take into account the legal, regulatory and supervisory regime that applies to them, including potential changes in the application or interpretation of regulatory standards, licensing requirements or supervisory expectations. Regulators may elect to alter standards or the interpretation of the standards used to measure regulatory compliance or to determine the adequacy of liquidity, certain risk management or other operational practices for financial services companies in a manner that impacts our current and prospective third-party partners.

Furthermore, the regulatory agencies have extremely broad discretion in their interpretation of the regulations and laws and their interpretation of the quality of our third-party partners’ assets. If any regulatory agency’s assessment of the quality of our third-party partners’ assets, operations, lending practices, investment practices or other aspects of their business changes, it may reduce our third-party partners’ earnings, capital ratios and share price in such a way that affects our business.

Bank holding companies and financial institutions are extensively regulated and currently face an uncertain regulatory environment. Applicable state and federal laws, regulations and interpretations, including enforcement policies and accounting principles, have been subject to significant changes in recent years, and may be subject to significant future changes. We cannot predict with any degree of certainty the substance or effect of pending or future legislation or regulation or the application of laws and regulations to our current and prospective third-party partners. Future changes may have an adverse effect on our current and prospective third-party partners and, therefore, on us.

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Risks Relating to Cybersecurity

The collection, processing, use, storage, sharing and transmission of PII and other sensitive data are subject to stringent and changing state, federal and international laws, regulations and standards and policies and could give rise to liabilities as a result of our failure or perceived failure to protect such data, comply with privacy and data protection laws and regulations or adhere to the privacy and data protection practices that we articulate to our customers.

In the course of our operations and the processing of transactions, we collect, process, store, disclose, use, share and/or transmit a large volume of PII and other sensitive data from current, past and prospective customers as well as our employees in and across multiple jurisdictions. The regulatory framework for privacy issues worldwide is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. There are federal, state and foreign laws and regulations regarding privacy, data security and the collection, processing, use, storage, protection, sharing and/or transmission of PII and sensitive data. For example, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (“GLBA”) (along with its implementing regulations) restricts certain collection, processing, storage, use and disclosure of personal information, requires notice to individuals of privacy practices and provides individuals with certain rights to prevent the use and disclosure of certain nonpublic or otherwise legally protected information. Additionally, many states continue to enact legislation on matters of privacy, information security, cybersecurity, data breach and data breach notification requirements. For example, as of January 1, 2020, the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) grants additional consumer rights with respect to data privacy in California. The CCPA, among other things, entitles California residents to know how their PII is being collected and shared, to access or request the deletion of their PII and to opt out of certain sharing of their PII. The CCPA is subject to further amendments pending certain proposed regulations that are being reviewed and revised by the California Attorney General. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for certain data breaches that result in the loss of PII. This private right of action may increase the likelihood of, and risks associated with, data breach litigation. We cannot predict the impact of the CCPA on our business, operations or financial condition, but it could result in liabilities and/or require us to modify certain processes or procedures, which could result in additional costs.

Additionally, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”) was passed in November 2020. Effective in most material respects starting on January 1, 2023, the CPRA imposes additional obligations on companies covered by the legislation and will significantly modify the CCPA, including by expanding customers’ rights with respect to certain sensitive PII. The CPRA also creates a new state agency that will be vested with authority to implement and enforce the CCPA and the CPRA. The effects of the CCPA and the CPRA are potentially significant and may require us to modify our data collection or processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply and increase our potential exposure to regulatory enforcement and/or litigation.

We expect more states to enact legislation similar to the CCPA and the CPRA, which provide customers with new privacy rights and increase the privacy and security obligations of entities handling certain PII of such customers. The CCPA has prompted a number of proposals for new federal and state-level privacy legislation, such as in Virginia, which signed such legislation, the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (“VCDPA”), into law on March 2, 2021 with an effective date of January 1, 2023. In addition, on July 7, 2021, Colorado enacted the Colorado Privacy Act (the “CoPA”), becoming the third comprehensive consumer privacy law to be passed in the United States (after the CCPA and VCDPA). The CoPA is set to take effect on July 1, 2023. The VCDPA, CoPA and such other proposed legislation, if enacted, may add additional complexity, variation in requirements, restrictions and potential legal risk, require additional investment of resources in compliance programs, impact strategies and the availability of previously useful data and could result in increased compliance costs and/or changes in business practices and policies.

Additionally, our investment adviser, ML Wealth, and broker-dealer, MoneyLion Securities LLC, are subject to SEC Regulation S-P, which requires that businesses maintain policies and procedures addressing the protection of customer information and records. This includes protecting against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of customer records and information and against unauthorized access to or use of customer records or information. Regulation S-P also requires businesses to provide initial and annual privacy notices to customers describing information sharing policies and informing customers of their rights.

Because the interpretation and application of many privacy and data protection laws are uncertain, it is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data management practices or the features of our services and platform capabilities. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, lawsuits

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and other claims, we could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or modify our platform, which could have an adverse effect on our business. Any violations or perceived violations of these laws, rules and regulations by us, or any third parties with which we do business, may require us to change our business practices or operational structure, including limiting our activities in certain states and/or jurisdictions, addressing legal claims by governmental entities or private actors, sustaining monetary penalties, sustaining reputational damage, expending substantial costs, time and other resources and/or sustaining other harms to our business. Furthermore, our online, external-facing privacy policy and website make certain statements regarding our privacy, information security and data security practices with regard to information collected from our customers or visitors to our website. Failure or perceived failure to adhere to such practices may result in regulatory scrutiny and investigation, complaints by affected customers or visitors to our website, reputational damage and/or other harm to our business. If either we, or the third-party service providers with which we share customer data, are unable to address privacy concerns, even if unfounded, or to comply with applicable privacy or data protection laws, regulations and policies, it could result in additional costs and liability to us, damage our reputation, inhibit sales and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Cyberattacks and other security breaches or disruptions suffered by us or third parties upon which we rely could have a materially adverse effect on our business, harm our reputation and expose us to public scrutiny or liability.

In the normal course of business, we collect, process, use and retain sensitive and confidential information regarding our customers and prospective customers, including data provided by and related to customers and their transactions, as well as other data of the counterparties to their payments. We also have arrangements in place with certain third-party service providers that require us to share consumer information. Although we devote resources and management focus to ensuring the integrity of our systems through information security and business continuity programs, our facilities and systems, and those of third-party service providers, are vulnerable to actual or threatened external or internal security breaches, acts of vandalism, theft, fraud or misconduct on the part of employees, other internal sources or third parties, computer viruses, phishing attacks, internet interruptions, disruptions or losses, misplaced or lost data, ransomware, unauthorized encryption, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering, unauthorized access, spam or other attacks, natural disasters, fires, terrorism, war, telecommunications or electrical interruptions or failures, programming or human errors or malfeasance and other similar malicious or inadvertent disruptions or events. We and our third-party service providers from time to time have experienced and may in the future continue to experience such instances. For example, during the third quarter of 2021, we experienced a customer account takeover incident where an unknown third party(ies) utilized password and other customer credentials found outside of MoneyLion to successfully gain access to MoneyLion customer accounts. In some cases, the bad actors facilitated unauthorized financial transactions. Our investigation to date shows no signs that our systems were actually breached by the bad actors, and we have compensated and made whole the customers whose accounts were accessed and financially impacted. We also worked with our banking partners and advisors to provide notices to affected customers and relevant regulators, and expect to incur total costs and expenses associated with the incident that are immaterial to our financial statements and operations. We also face security threats from malicious third parties that could obtain unauthorized access to our systems and networks, which threats we anticipate will continue to grow in scope and complexity over time. These events could interrupt our business or operations, result in legal claims or proceedings, result in significant legal and financial exposure, supervisory liability under U.S. federal or state, or non-U.S. laws regarding the privacy and protection of information, including PII, damage to our reputation and a loss of confidence in the security of our systems, products and services. Although the impact to date from these events has not had a material adverse effect on us, no assurance is given that this will be the case in the future.

Information security risks in the financial services industry have increased recently, in part because of new technologies, the use of the internet and telecommunications technologies (including mobile devices) to conduct financial and other business transactions and the increased sophistication and activities of organized criminals, perpetrators of fraud, hackers, terrorists and other malicious third parties. In addition to cyberattacks and other security breaches involving the theft of sensitive and confidential information, hackers, terrorists, sophisticated nation-state and nation-state supported actors and other malicious third parties recently have engaged in attacks that are designed to disrupt key business services, such as consumer-facing websites. We and our third-party service providers may not be able to anticipate or implement effective preventive measures against all security breaches of these types, especially because the techniques used to sabotage or to obtain unauthorized access to our or our third-party service providers’ technology, systems, networks and/or physical facilities in which data is stored or through which data is transmitted change frequently and because attacks can originate from a wide variety of sources. We employ detection and response mechanisms designed to contain and mitigate security incidents. Nonetheless, early detection efforts may be thwarted

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by sophisticated attacks and malware designed to avoid detection. We also may fail to detect the existence of a security breach related to the information of our customers and to prevent or detect service interruption, system failure or data loss. Further, as the current COVID-19 pandemic continues to result in a significant number of people working from home, these cybersecurity risks may be heightened by an increased attack surface across our business and those of our customers and third-party service providers. We cannot guarantee that our efforts, or the efforts of those upon whom we rely and partner with, will be successful in preventing any such information security incidents.

The access by unauthorized persons to, or the improper disclosure by us of, confidential information regarding our customers or our proprietary information, software, methodologies and business secrets could interrupt our business or operations, result in significant legal and financial exposure, supervisory liability, damage to our reputation or a loss of confidence in the security of our systems, products and services, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our business. In addition, there recently have been a number of well-publicized attacks or breaches affecting companies in the financial services industry that have heightened concern by customers, which could also intensify regulatory focus, cause customers to lose trust in the security of the industry in general and result in reduced use of our services and increased costs, all of which could also have a material adverse effect on our business.

Most jurisdictions (including all 50 states) have enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals, regulatory authorities and/or others of security breaches involving certain types of data. In addition, our agreements with certain partners and service providers may require us to notify them in the event of a security breach. Such mandatory disclosures are costly, could lead to negative publicity, may cause our customers, partners and service providers to lose confidence in the effectiveness of our security measures and require us to expend significant capital and other resources to respond to and/or alleviate problems caused by the actual or perceived security breach. A security breach of any of our vendors that processes PII of our customers may pose similar risks.

A security breach may also cause us to breach customer contracts. Our agreements with certain partners and service providers may require us to use industry-standard or reasonable measures to safeguard PII. We also may be subject to laws that require us to use industry-standard or reasonable security measures to safeguard PII. A security breach could lead to claims by our customers or other relevant stakeholders that we have failed to comply with such legal or contractual obligations. As a result, we could be subject to legal action or our customers could end their relationships with us. There can be no assurance that the limitations of liability in our contracts would be enforceable or adequate or would otherwise protect us from liabilities or damages, and in some cases our customer agreements may not limit our remediation costs or liability with respect to data breaches.

Litigation resulting from security breaches may adversely affect our business. Unauthorized access to our technology, systems, networks or physical facilities, or those of our third-party service providers, could result in litigation with our customers or other relevant stakeholders. These proceedings could force us to spend money in defense or settlement, divert management’s time and attention, increase our costs of doing business or adversely affect our reputation. We could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or modify our products and/or technology capabilities in response to such litigation, which could have an adverse effect on our business. If a security breach were to occur, and the confidentiality, integrity or availability of PII was disrupted, we could incur significant liability, or our technology, systems or networks may be perceived as less desirable, which could negatively affect our business and damage our reputation.

While we maintain cybersecurity insurance, we may not have adequate insurance coverage with respect to liabilities that result from any cyberattacks or other security breaches or disruptions suffered by us or third parties upon which we rely. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceeds our available insurance coverage, or results in changes to our insurance policies (including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements), could have an adverse effect on our business. In addition, we cannot be sure that our existing insurance coverage and coverage for errors and omissions will continue to be available on acceptable terms or that our insurers will not deny coverage as to any future claim.

While we take precautions to prevent consumer identity fraud, it is possible that identity fraud may still occur or has occurred, which may adversely affect the performance of our products and services or subject us to scrutiny or penalties.

There is risk of fraudulent activity associated with our platform, customers, service providers and third parties handling consumer information. Our resources, technologies and fraud prevention tools may be insufficient to accurately detect and prevent fraud. The level of fraud-related charge-offs on the loans and other products and services facilitated

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through our platform could be adversely affected if fraudulent activity were to significantly increase. Significant amounts of fraudulent cancellations or chargebacks could adversely affect our business or financial condition. High profile fraudulent activity or significant increases in fraudulent activity could also lead to regulatory intervention, negative publicity and the erosion of trust from our customers, and could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, future prospects and cash flows.

Risks Relating to Intellectual Property

We may be unable to sufficiently obtain, maintain, protect or enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, which could reduce the value of our platform, products, services and brand, impair our competitive position and cause reputational harm.

Intellectual property and other proprietary rights are important to the success of our business. Our ability to compete effectively is dependent in part upon our ability to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, including with respect to our proprietary technology, and to obtain licenses to use the intellectual property and proprietary rights of others. We rely on a combination of trademarks, service marks, copyrights, trade secrets, domain names and contractual rights to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We own the domain name rights for moneylion.com, and, as of December 31, 2021, we owned 22 registered trademarks, one copyright, and four trademark applications in the United States. Nonetheless, the steps we take to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights may be inadequate and, despite our efforts to protect these rights, unauthorized third parties, including our competitors, may duplicate, mimic, reverse engineer, access, obtain, or use the proprietary aspects of our technology, processes, products, or services without our permission, thereby impeding our ability to promote our platform and possibly leading to customer confusion. Our competitors and other third parties may also design around or independently develop similar technology or otherwise duplicate or mimic our services or products such that we would not be able to successfully assert our intellectual property or other proprietary rights against them. We have filed, and may continue in the future to file, applications to protect certain of our innovations and intellectual property. We cannot assure that any future patent, trademark, or service mark registrations will be issued for our pending or future applications or that any of our current or future patents, copyrights, trademarks, or service marks (whether registered or unregistered) will be valid, enforceable, sufficiently broad in scope, provide adequate protection of our intellectual property or other proprietary rights, or provide us with any competitive advantage.

Our trademarks, trade names and service marks have significant value, and our brand is an important factor in the marketing of our services. We rely on, and intend to rely on, both registrations and common law protections for our trademarks. However, we may be unable to prevent competitors or other third parties from acquiring or using trademarks, service marks, or other intellectual property or other proprietary rights that are similar to, infringe upon, misappropriate, dilute, or otherwise violate or diminish the value of our trademarks and service marks and our other intellectual property and proprietary rights. The value of our intellectual property and other proprietary rights could diminish if others assert rights in or ownership of our intellectual property or other proprietary rights, or in trademarks or service marks that are similar to our trademarks or service marks. Additionally, if third parties succeed in registering or developing common law rights in such trademarks or similar trademarks, and if we are not successful in challenging such third-party rights, we may not be able to use these trademarks to develop brand recognition of our platform, products or services. If we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, we may not be able to compete effectively, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition to registered intellectual property rights such as trademark registrations, we rely on non-registered proprietary information and technology, such as trade secrets, confidential information, know-how and technical information. In order to protect our proprietary information and technology, we rely in part on confidentiality and intellectual property assignment agreements with our employees and contractors involved in the development of material intellectual property for us, which require such individuals to assign such intellectual property to us and place restrictions on the employees’ and contractors’ use and disclosure of our confidential information. However, these agreements may not be self-executing, and we cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements containing obligations of confidentiality with each party that has or may have had access to proprietary information, know-how, or trade secrets owned or held by us. Individuals that were involved in the development of intellectual property for us or who had access to our intellectual property may make adverse ownership claims to our current and future intellectual property. Likewise, to the extent that our employees, independent contractors or other third parties with

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whom we do business use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in related or resulting works of authorship, know-how and inventions. Moreover, our contractual arrangements may be insufficient, breached or may otherwise not effectively prevent disclosure of, or control access to, our confidential or otherwise proprietary information or provide an adequate remedy in the event of an unauthorized disclosure, which could cause us to lose any competitive advantage resulting from this intellectual property. The measures we have put in place may not prevent misappropriation, infringement, or other violation of our intellectual property, proprietary rights or information and any resulting loss of competitive advantage, and we may be required to litigate to protect our intellectual property or other proprietary rights or information from misappropriation, infringement or other violation by others, which is time-consuming and expensive, could cause a diversion of resources and may not be successful, even when our rights have been infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated. Our efforts to enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, and if such defenses, counterclaims or countersuits are successful, it could diminish or we could otherwise lose valuable intellectual property and other proprietary rights. Furthermore, changes to U.S. or foreign intellectual property laws and regulations may jeopardize the enforceability and validity of our intellectual property portfolio and harm our ability to obtain patent protection, including for some of our unique business methods. Additionally, the laws of some foreign countries may not be as protective of intellectual property and other proprietary rights as those in the U.S., and the mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property and other proprietary rights may be inadequate.

Furthermore, third parties may challenge, invalidate, or circumvent our intellectual property and proprietary rights, including through administrative processes or litigation. The legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property and other proprietary rights are uncertain and still evolving. Our intellectual property and other proprietary rights may not be sufficient to provide us with a competitive advantage and the value of our intellectual property and other proprietary rights could also diminish if others assert rights therein or ownership thereof, and we may be unable to successfully resolve any such conflicts in our favor or to our satisfaction.

We may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement, misappropriation or other violation of their intellectual property or other proprietary rights which may be costly and may subject us to significant liability and increased costs of doing business.

Our success depends, in part, on our ability to develop and commercialize our products and services without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property or other proprietary rights of third parties.

We may become involved in disputes from time to time concerning intellectual property or other proprietary rights of third parties, which may relate to our own proprietary technology, or to technology that we acquire or license from third parties, and we may not prevail in these disputes. Relatedly, competitors or other third parties may raise claims alleging that we, service providers or other third parties retained or indemnified by us, infringe on, misappropriate or otherwise violate such competitors’ or other third parties’ intellectual property or other proprietary rights. These claims of infringement, misappropriation or other violation may be extremely broad, and it may not be possible for us to conduct our operations in such a way as to avoid all such alleged violations of such intellectual property or other proprietary rights. We also may be unaware of third-party intellectual property or other proprietary rights that cover or otherwise relate to some or all of our products and services. For example, there may be issued patents of which we are not aware, held by third parties that, if found to be valid and enforceable, could be alleged to be infringed by our current or future technologies or products. There also may be pending patent applications of which we are not aware that may result in issued patents, which could be alleged to be infringed by our current or future technologies or products. Because patent applications can take years to issue and are often afforded confidentiality for some period of time, there may currently be pending applications, unknown to us, that later result in issued patents that could cover our current or future technologies or products.

Given the complex, rapidly changing and competitive technological and business environment in which we operate, and the potential risks and uncertainties of intellectual property-related litigation, a claim of infringement, misappropriation or other violation against us may require us to spend significant amounts of time and other resources to defend against the claim (even if we ultimately prevail), pay significant money damages, make significant payments for legal fees, settlement payments or other costs, lose significant revenues, be prohibited from using the relevant systems, processes, technologies or other intellectual property (temporarily or permanently), cease offering certain products or services, obtain a license, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all, to sell or

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use the relevant technology or redesign our allegedly infringing products or services, or functionality therein, to avoid infringement, misappropriation or other violations, which could be costly, time-consuming or impossible, rebrand our products and services and/or be prevented from selling some of our products or services if third parties successfully oppose or challenge our trademarks or successfully claim that we infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate their trademarks or other intellectual property rights and/or limit the manner in which we use our brands. In addition, if a third party is able to obtain an injunction preventing us from accessing such third-party intellectual property rights, or if we cannot license or develop alternative technology for any infringing aspect of our business, we may be forced to limit or stop sales of our relevant products and technology capabilities or cease business activities related to such intellectual property. We cannot predict the outcome of lawsuits and cannot ensure that the results of any such actions will not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Some of the aforementioned risks of infringement, misappropriation or other violation, in particular with respect to patents, are potentially increased due to the nature of our business, industry and intellectual property portfolio. For instance, it has become common in recent years for certain third parties to purchase patents or other intellectual property assets for the sole purpose of making claims of infringement, misappropriation or other violation in an attempt to extract settlements from companies such as ours. In addition, many companies have the capability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights and to defend claims that may be brought against them than we can. In a patent infringement claim against us, we may assert, as a defense, that we do not infringe the relevant patent claims, that the patent is invalid or both. The strength of our defenses may depend on the patents asserted, the interpretation of these patents or our ability to invalidate the asserted patents. However, we could be unsuccessful in advancing non-infringement and/or invalidity arguments in our defense. In the U.S., issued patents enjoy a presumption of validity, and the party challenging the validity of a patent claim must present clear and convincing evidence of invalidity, which is a high burden of proof. Conversely, the patent owner need only prove infringement by a preponderance of the evidence, which is a lower burden of proof. We do not currently have a patent portfolio, which could prevent us from deterring patent infringement claims from competitors or other third parties and our competitors and others may now and in the future have significantly larger and more mature patent portfolios than we may have. Any litigation may also involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners that have no relevant product revenue, and therefore, any future patents we may have may provide little or no deterrence as we would not be able to assert them against such entities or individuals.

In addition to the previously mentioned impacts of intellectual property-related litigation, while in some cases a third party may have agreed to indemnify us for costs associated with intellectual property-related litigation, such indemnifying third party may refuse or be unable to uphold its contractual obligations. In other cases, our insurance may not cover potential claims of this type adequately or at all, and we may be required to pay monetary damages, which may be significant.

Even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and harm our business and operating results. Moreover, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of the MoneyLion Class A Common Stock. The occurrence of infringement and misappropriation claims may grow as the market for our platform and products grows. Accordingly, our exposure to damages resulting from infringement claims could increase and this could further exhaust our financial and management resources. Any of the foregoing could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business and platform depend in part on intellectual property and proprietary rights and technology licensed from or otherwise made available to us by third parties. If we fail to comply with our obligations under license or technology agreements with third parties, we may be required to pay damages and we could lose license rights that are critical to our business.

Our business and our platform rely on technologies developed or licensed by third parties. These third-party software components may become obsolete, defective or incompatible with future versions of our services, relationships with the third-party licensors or technology providers may deteriorate or our agreements with the third-party licensors or technology providers may expire or be terminated. Additionally, some of these licenses or other grants of rights may not be available to us in the future on terms that are acceptable, or at all, or that allow our platform, products and

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services to remain competitive. Our inability to obtain licenses or rights on favorable terms could have a material and adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Furthermore, incorporating intellectual property or proprietary rights licensed from or otherwise made available to us by third parties on a non-exclusive basis in our products or services could limit our ability to protect the intellectual property and proprietary rights in our services and our ability to restrict third parties from developing, selling or otherwise providing similar or competitive technology using the same third-party intellectual property or proprietary rights.

We believe we have all the necessary licenses and other grants of rights from third parties to use technology and software that we do not own. A third party could, however, allege that we are infringing its rights, which may deter our ability to obtain licenses or other grants of rights on commercially reasonable terms from the third party, if at all, or cause the third party to commence litigation against us. Our failure to obtain necessary licenses or other rights, or litigation or claims arising out of intellectual property matters, may harm or restrict our business. In addition, we could be found liable for significant monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees, if we are found to have willfully infringed a patent or other intellectual property right. Any such litigation or the failure to obtain any necessary licenses or other rights could adversely impact our business, financial position and results of operations.

Risks Relating to Legal and Regulatory Matters

Failure to comply with anti-money laundering, economic and trade sanctions regulations and similar laws could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.

We maintain an enterprise-wide program designed to enable us to comply with all applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing laws and regulations, including the Bank Secrecy Act (“BSA”) and the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001. This program includes policies, procedures, processes and other internal controls designed to identify, monitor, manage and mitigate the risk of money laundering and terrorist financing. These controls include procedures and processes to detect and report potentially suspicious transactions, perform consumer due diligence, respond to requests from law enforcement and meet all recordkeeping and reporting requirements related to particular transactions involving currency or monetary instruments. We are required to maintain this program under our agreements with our third-party partners, and certain state regulatory agencies have intimated they expect the program to be in place and followed. We cannot provide any assurance that our programs and controls will be effective to ensure compliance with all applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing laws and regulations we are required to comply with, and our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could result in a breach and termination of our agreements with our third-party partners or criticism by state governmental agencies, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.

We have in the past, and continue to be, subject to inquiries, subpoenas, exams, pending investigations and enforcement matters by state and federal regulators, the outcomes of which are uncertain and could cause reputational and financial harm to our business and results of operations.

The financial services industry is subject to extensive regulation under federal, state and applicable international laws. From time to time, we have been, and continue to be, subject to inquiries, subpoenas, pending investigations and enforcement matters by state and federal regulators and have been threatened with or named as a defendant in lawsuits, arbitrations and administrative claims involving securities, consumer financial services and other matters. We are also subject to periodic regulatory examinations and inspections. Compliance and trading problems that are reported to regulators, such as the SEC, FINRA, the CFPB or state regulators, by dissatisfied customers or others are investigated by such regulators, and may, if pursued, result in formal claims being filed against us by customers or disciplinary action being taken against us or our employees by regulators or enforcement agencies. To resolve issues raised in examinations or other governmental actions, we may be required to take various corrective actions, including changing certain business practices, making refunds or taking other actions that could be financially or competitively detrimental to us. We expect to continue to incur costs to comply with governmental regulations. Any such claims or disciplinary actions that are decided against us could have a material impact on our financial results. For a discussion of specific legal and regulatory proceedings, inquiries and investigations, to which we are currently subject, please refer to “Legal Proceedings.”

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Unfavorable outcomes in legal proceedings may harm our business and results of operations.

We are, and may in the future become, subject to litigation, claims, examinations, investigations, legal and administrative cases and proceedings, whether civil or criminal, or lawsuits by governmental agencies or private parties, which may affect our results of operations. These claims, lawsuits and proceedings could involve labor and employment, discrimination and harassment, commercial disputes, intellectual property rights (including patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret and other proprietary rights), class actions, general contract, tort, defamation, data privacy rights, antitrust, common law fraud, government regulation, compliance, alleged federal and state securities and “blue sky” law violations or other investor claims and other matters. Due to the consumer-oriented nature of our business and the application of certain laws and regulations, participants in our industry are regularly named as defendants in litigation alleging violations of federal and state laws and regulations and consumer law torts, including fraud. Many of these legal proceedings involve alleged violations of consumer protection laws. In addition, we have in the past and may in the future be subject to litigation, claims, examinations, investigations, legal and administrative cases and proceedings related to our loan products and other financial services we provide. For instance, our membership model and some of the products and services we offer are relatively novel and have been subject to limited regulatory scrutiny, but there has been, and may continue to be, increasing regulatory interest in and/or litigation challenging our membership model, our products or our services.

Any unfavorable results of pending or future legal proceedings may result in contractual damages, usury-related claims, fines, penalties, injunctions, the unenforceability, rescission or other impairment of loans originated on our platform or other censure that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Even if we adequately address the issues raised by an investigation or proceeding or successfully defend a third-party lawsuit or counterclaim, we may have to devote significant financial and management resources to address these issues, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Although we currently maintain insurance, there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain such insurance on acceptable terms in the future, if at all, or that any such insurance will provide adequate protection against potential liabilities. Additionally, we do not carry insurance for all categories of risk that our business may encounter. Any significant liability that is uninsured or not fully insured may require us to pay substantial amounts. There can be no assurance that any current or future claims will not materially and adversely affect our business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

Changes in tax law and differences in interpretation of tax laws and regulations may adversely impact our financial statements.

We operate in multiple jurisdictions and are subject to tax laws and regulations of the U.S. federal, state and local and non-U.S. governments. U.S. federal, state and local and non-U.S. tax laws and regulations are complex and subject to varying interpretations. U.S. federal, state and local and non-U.S. tax authorities may interpret tax laws and regulations differently than we do and challenge tax positions that we have taken. This may result in differences in the treatment of revenues, deductions, credits and/or differences in the timing of these items. The differences in treatment may result in payment of additional taxes, interest or penalties that could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Further, future changes to U.S. federal, state and local and non-U.S. tax laws and regulations could increase our tax obligations in jurisdictions where we do business or require us to change the manner in which we conduct some aspects of our business.

As the regulatory framework for artificial intelligence and machine learning technology evolves, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

The regulatory framework for artificial intelligence and machine learning technology is evolving and remains uncertain. It is possible that new laws and regulations will be adopted in the U.S., or existing laws and regulations may be interpreted in new ways, that would affect the operation of our platform and the way in which we use artificial intelligence and machine learning technology, including with respect to fair lending laws. Further, the cost to comply with such laws or regulations could be significant and would increase our operating expenses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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If we fail to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.

As a public company, we are now subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), and the rules and regulations of the applicable listing standards of the NYSE. We expect that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming and costly and place significant strain on our personnel, systems and resources.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We are continuing to develop and refine our disclosure controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file with the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms and that information required to be disclosed in reports under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our principal executive and financial officers. We are also continuing to improve our internal control over financial reporting. In order to maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, we have expended, and anticipate that we will continue to expend, significant resources, including accounting-related costs, and significant management oversight. Our current controls and any new controls that we develop may become inadequate because of changes in conditions in our business.

The nature of our business is such that our financial statements involve a number of complex accounting policies, many of which involve significant elements of judgment, including determinations regarding the consolidation of variable interest entities, determinations regarding the fair value of derivative warrant liabilities and the appropriate classification of various items within our financial statements. The inherent complexity of these accounting matters and the nature and variety of transactions in which we are involved require that we have sufficient qualified accounting personnel with an appropriate level of experience and controls in our financial reporting process commensurate with the complexity of our business. While we believe we have sufficient internal accounting personnel and external resources and appropriate controls to address the demands of our business, we expect that the growth and development of our business will place significant additional demands on our accounting resources. Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement could harm our results of operations or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and may result in a restatement of our financial statements. Any failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could also adversely affect the results of periodic management evaluations and annual independent registered public accounting firm attestation reports regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting that we will be required to include in our periodic reports that will be filed with the SEC. Ineffective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information, which would likely have a negative effect on the trading price of our common stock. In addition, if we are unable to continue to meet these requirements, we may not be able to remain listed on the NYSE. As a public company, we are now subject to the SEC rules that implement Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and will be required to provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. There can be no assurance that we will maintain internal control over financial reporting sufficient to enable us to identify or avoid material weaknesses in the future.

Our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting until we are no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our internal control over financial reporting is documented, designed or operating. Any failure to maintain effective disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition and could cause a decline in the trading price of our common stock.

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MoneyLion has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting which remain un-remediated as of December 31, 2021. If MoneyLion is unable to develop and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results in a timely manner, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us and materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of an entity’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected and corrected on a timely basis. Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Our management is likewise required, on a quarterly basis, to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal controls and to disclose any changes and material weaknesses identified through such evaluation in those internal controls.

Subsequent to the issuance of MoneyLion’s consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, MoneyLion had to restate such financial statements with respect to the treatment of the noncontrolling interests attributable to the Class B investors of Invest in America Credit Fund I LLC (“IIA”). For additional information with respect to the restatement, see Note 2 to MoneyLion’s audited financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 included in our prospectus (File No. 333-255936), filed with the SEC on September 3, 2021 pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). As a result of the foregoing, MoneyLion identified a material weakness in its internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019. MoneyLion did not maintain an effective control environment as there were certain areas in which the accounting function did not operate as expected, resulting in the foregoing restatement of previously issued financial statements. Despite efforts to improve the deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting, the Company’s management has concluded that the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 remained un-remediated as of December 31, 2021.

In addition, subsequent to the issuance of MoneyLion’s condensed consolidated financial statements as of September 30, 2021, MoneyLion had to restate its previously issued financial statements with respect to the accounting for the conversion of subordinated convertible notes and exercise of stock warrants into equity and the calculation of diluted earnings per share for the three months ended September 30, 2021. As a result of the foregoing, MoneyLion identified additional material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2021, which remained un-remediated as of December 31, 2021. MoneyLion did not maintain an effective control environment, resulting in the foregoing restatement of previously issued financial statements, as there were certain areas in which the accounting function did not operate as expected, due to a lack of sufficient internal accounting resources and inadequate level of precision embedded in control activities, as well as lack of sufficient formalization over processes and control evidence, resulting in multiple audit adjustments and restatements in our previously issued financial statements.

Effective internal controls are necessary to provide reliable financial reports and prevent fraud. MoneyLion continues to evaluate steps to remediate these material weaknesses and is in the process of remediating the control deficiencies that relate to the material weaknesses. We intend to complete the remediation by December 31, 2022, but these remediation measures may be time consuming and costly, and there is no assurance that we will be able to complete the remediation and put in place the appropriate controls within this timeframe or that these initiatives will ultimately have the intended effects.

If MoneyLion identifies any new material weaknesses in the future, any such newly identified material weakness could limit its ability to prevent or detect a misstatement of its accounts or disclosures that could result in a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements. In such case, we may be unable to maintain compliance with securities law requirements regarding timely filing of periodic reports in addition to applicable stock exchange listing requirements, investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting and our stock price may decline as a result. We cannot assure you that the measures MoneyLion has taken to date, or any measures it may take in the future, will be sufficient to avoid potential future material weaknesses.

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The material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and the restatements of certain of our previously issued financial statements subjected us to additional risks and uncertainties, including increased professional costs and the increased possibility of legal proceedings.

As a result of the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and the restatement of certain of our previously issued financial statements as described further in the foregoing risk factor, we have become subject to additional risks and uncertainties, including, among others, increased professional fees and expenses and time commitment that may be required to address matters related to the remediation of the material weaknesses and the restatements and increased scrutiny of the SEC and other regulatory bodies, which could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and could subject us to penalties. In addition, we face increased potential for litigation or other disputes which may include, among others, claims invoking the federal and state securities laws, contractual claims or other claims arising from, among other things, the restatements and material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and the preparation of our financial statements. Any such litigation or dispute, whether successful or not, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and could cause our stock price to decline.

Our risk management processes and procedures may not be effective.

Our risk management processes and procedures seek to appropriately balance risk and return and mitigate risks. We have established processes and procedures intended to identify, measure, monitor and control the types of risk to which we are subject, including credit risk, deposit risk, market risk, liquidity risk, strategic risk, operational risk, cybersecurity risk and reputational risk. Credit risk is the risk of loss that arises when a loan obligor fails to meet the terms of a loan repayment obligation, the loan enters default, and if uncured results in financial loss of remaining principal and interest to the investor. Our exposure to credit risk mainly arises from our lending activities. Deposit risk refers to accelerated availability of depositor funds, prior to settlement, risk of ACH returns or merchant settlements and transactional limits that may be applied to deposit accounts. Market risk is the risk of loss due to changes in external market factors, such as interest rates, asset prices and foreign exchange rates. Liquidity risk is the risk that financial condition or overall safety and soundness are adversely affected by an inability, or perceived inability, to meet obligations (e.g., current and future cash flow needs) and support business growth. We actively monitor our liquidity position. Strategic risk is the risk from changes in the business environment, ineffective business strategies, improper implementation of decisions or inadequate responsiveness to changes in the business and competitive environment.

Our management is responsible for defining the priorities, initiatives and resources necessary to execute our strategic plan, the success of which is regularly evaluated by the board of directors. Operational risk is the risk of loss arising from inadequate or failed internal processes, controls, people (e.g., human error or misconduct) or systems (e.g. technology problems), business continuity or external events (e.g., natural disasters), compliance, reputational, regulatory or legal matters and includes those risks as they relate directly to us, fraud losses attributed to applications, transaction processing or employees, as well as to third parties with whom we contract or otherwise do business. Operational risk is one of the most prevalent forms of risk in our risk profile. We strive to manage operational risk by establishing policies and procedures to accomplish timely and efficient processing, obtaining periodic internal control attestations from management, conducting internal process risk control self-assessments and audit reviews to evaluate the effectiveness of internal controls.

In order to be effective, among other things, our enterprise risk management capabilities must adapt and align to support any new product or loan features, capability, strategic development, or external change. Cybersecurity risk is the risk of a malicious technological attack intended to impact the confidentiality, availability or integrity of our systems and data, including, but not limited to, sensitive client data. Our technology and information security teams rely on a layered system of preventive and detective technologies, practices and policies to detect, mitigate and neutralize cybersecurity threats. In addition, our information security team and third-party consultants regularly assess our cybersecurity risks and mitigation efforts. Cyberattacks can also result in financial and reputational risk.

Reputational risk is the risk arising from possible negative perceptions of us, whether true or not, among our current and prospective customers, counterparties, employees and regulators. The potential for either enhancing or damaging our reputation is inherent in almost all aspects of business activity. We manage this risk through our commitment to a set of core values that emphasize and reward high standards of ethical behavior, maintaining a culture of compliance and by being responsive to customer and regulatory requirements.

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Risk is inherent in our business, and therefore, despite our efforts to manage risk, there can be no assurance that we will not sustain unexpected losses. We could incur substantial losses and our business operations could be disrupted to the extent our business model, operational processes, control functions, technological capabilities, risk analyses and business/product knowledge do not adequately identify and manage potential risks associated with our strategic initiatives. There also may be risks that exist, or that develop in the future, that we have not appropriately anticipated, identified or mitigated, including when processes are changed or new products and services are introduced. If our risk management framework does not effectively identify and control our risks, we could suffer unexpected losses or be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our ability to use our deferred tax assets to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations that could subject our business to higher tax liabilities.

We may be limited in the portion of net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”) that we can use in the future to offset taxable income for U.S. federal and state income tax purposes. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) enacted on December 22, 2017, makes broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code. While future interpretative guidance of the Tax Act and how many U.S. states will incorporate these federal law changes may have an impact on our business, the Tax Act’s reduction of the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%, effective January 1, 2018, has reduced our deferred tax asset associated with NOLs. A lack of future taxable income would adversely affect our ability to utilize our NOLs.

In addition, under Section 382 of the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its NOLs to offset future taxable income. Future changes in our stock ownership as well as other changes that may be outside of our control, could result in additional ownership changes under Section 382 of the Code. Our NOLs may also be impaired under similar provisions of state law.

We assess the available positive and negative evidence to estimate if sufficient future taxable income will be generated to utilize the existing deferred tax assets. On the basis of this evaluation, a full valuation allowance has historically been recorded to recognize only deferred tax assets that are more likely than not to be realized.

Finally, further changes to the federal or state tax laws or technical guidance relating to the Tax Act that would further reduce the corporate tax rate could operate to effectively reduce or eliminate the value of any deferred tax asset. Our tax attributes as of December 31, 2021 may expire unutilized or underutilized, which could prevent us from offsetting future taxable income.

Risks Relating to Ownership of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock

Our warrants are exercisable for MoneyLion Class A Common Stock, which would increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to our stockholders.

As of December 31, 2021, there were 17,499,900 outstanding Public Warrants to purchase 17,499,900 shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share, which warrants became exercisable commencing 30 days following the Business Combination. In addition, as of December 31, 2021, there were 8,100,000 private placement warrants outstanding exercisable for 8,100,000 shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share. To the extent such warrants are exercised, additional shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock will be issued, which will result in dilution to the holders of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market could adversely affect the market price of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock, the impact of which is increased as the value of our stock price increases.

We may redeem your unexpired warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to you, thereby making your warrants worthless.

We have the ability to redeem outstanding Public Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant, provided that the closing price of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date we give notice of redemption. If and when the warrants become redeemable by MoneyLion, we may exercise the redemption right even if it is unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding warrants could force holders to

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(i) exercise the warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so, (ii) sell the warrants at the then-current market price when the holder might otherwise wish to hold onto such warrants or (iii) accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of the warrants. None of the private placement warrants will be redeemable by us so long as they are held by their initial purchasers or their permitted transferees.

In addition, we may redeem your warrants after they become exercisable for a number of shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock determined based on the redemption date and the fair market value of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock. Any such redemption may have similar consequences to a cash redemption described above. In addition, such redemption may occur at a time when the warrants are “out-of-the-money,” in which case you would lose any potential embedded value from a subsequent increase in the value of the MoneyLion Class A Common Stock had your warrants remained outstanding.

Delaware law and provisions in MoneyLion’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws could make a takeover proposal more difficult.

Our organizational documents are governed by Delaware law. Certain provisions of Delaware law and of MoneyLion’s Fourth Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (as amended and restated from time to time, the “Certificate of Incorporation”) and Amended and Restated Bylaws (as amended and restated from time to time, the “Bylaws”) could discourage, delay, defer or prevent a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other change of control transaction that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock held by MoneyLion’s stockholders. These provisions include the ability of the board of directors to designate the terms of and issue new series of preference shares, which may make more difficult the removal of management and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for our securities.

These anti-takeover provisions as well as certain provisions of Delaware law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire MoneyLion, even if the third party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many of MoneyLion’s stockholders. As a result, MoneyLion’s stockholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares. If prospective takeovers are not consummated for any reason, MoneyLion may experience negative reactions from the financial markets, including negative impacts on the price of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for MoneyLion’s stockholders to elect directors of their choosing and to cause MoneyLion to take other corporate actions that MoneyLion’s stockholders desire.

The market price of our securities may be volatile.

Fluctuations in the price of MoneyLion’s securities could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. The trading price of MoneyLion securities may be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in our securities and MoneyLion securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.

Factors affecting the trading price of MoneyLion’s securities may include:

•        actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;

•        changes in the market’s expectations about MoneyLion’s operating results;

•        success of competitors;

•        operating results failing to meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;

•        changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning MoneyLion or the industry in which MoneyLion operates in general;

•        operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to MoneyLion;

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•        ability to market new and enhanced products and services on a timely basis;

•        changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;

•        commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving MoneyLion;

•        changes in MoneyLion’s capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;

•        the volume of shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock available for public sale;

•        any major change in MoneyLion’s board or management;

•        sales of substantial amounts of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock by MoneyLion’s directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and

•        general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.

Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our securities irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general, and the NYSE specifically, have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, you may not be able to sell your securities at or above the price at which it was acquired. A loss of investor confidence in the market for the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to MoneyLion could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our securities also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.

MoneyLion’s failure to meet the continued listing requirements of the NYSE could result in a delisting of its securities.

If MoneyLion fails to satisfy the continued listing requirements of the NYSE such as the corporate governance requirements or the minimum closing bid price requirement, the NYSE may take steps to delist its securities. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of the securities and would impair your ability to sell or purchase the securities when you wish to do so. In the event of a delisting, MoneyLion can provide no assurance that any action taken by it to restore compliance with listing requirements would allow its securities to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of its securities, prevent its securities from dropping below the NYSE minimum bid price requirement or prevent future non-compliance with the NYSE’s listing requirements. Additionally, if MoneyLion’s securities are not listed on, or become delisted from, the NYSE for any reason, and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of MoneyLion’s securities may be more limited than if it were quoted or listed on the NYSE or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established or sustained.

MoneyLion qualifies as an emerging growth company within the meaning of Section 2(a) of the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act. Because MoneyLion intends to take advantage of certain exemptions from disclosure requirements available to emerging growth companies, this could make MoneyLion’s securities less attractive to investors and may make it more difficult to compare MoneyLion’s performance with other public companies.

In addition, under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised financial accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. MoneyLion intends to take advantage of this extended transition period under the JOBS Act for adopting new or revised financial accounting standards.

For as long as MoneyLion continues to be an emerging growth company, it may also take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. As a result, its stockholders may not have access to certain information that they may deem important. MoneyLion could be an emerging growth company for up to five years, although circumstances could

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cause it to lose that status earlier, including if its total annual gross revenue exceeds $1.07 billion, if it issues more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities during any three-year period, or if before that time it is a “large accelerated filer” under U.S. securities laws.

MoneyLion cannot predict if investors will find MoneyLion Class A Common Stock less attractive because it may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find MoneyLion Class A Common Stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for MoneyLion Class A Common Stock and MoneyLion’s share price may be more volatile. If an active, liquid public trading market for MoneyLion Class A Common Stock does not develop or is not maintained, we may be limited in our ability to raise capital by selling shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock and our ability to acquire other companies or assets by using shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock or other MoneyLion securities as consideration. Further, there is no guarantee that the exemptions available to MoneyLion under the JOBS Act will result in significant savings. To the extent that MoneyLion chooses not to use exemptions from various reporting requirements under the JOBS Act, it will incur additional compliance costs, which may impact MoneyLion’s financial condition.

Our Certificate of Incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by MoneyLion’s stockholders, which could limit MoneyLion’s stockholders’ ability to obtain what such stockholders believe to be a favorable judicial forum for disputes with MoneyLion or MoneyLion’s directors, officers or other employees.

Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that, unless MoneyLion consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (the “Court of Chancery”) shall be the sole and exclusive forum for any stockholder (including a beneficial owner) to bring (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of MoneyLion, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of MoneyLion to MoneyLion or MoneyLion’s stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against MoneyLion, its directors, officers or employees arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or MoneyLion’s Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim against MoneyLion, its directors, officers or employees governed by the internal affairs doctrine and, if brought outside of Delaware, the stockholder bringing the suit will be deemed to have consented to service of process on such stockholder’s counsel, except for, as to each of (i) through (iv) above, any claim (A) as to which the Court of Chancery determines that there is an indispensable party not subject to the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery (and the indispensable party does not consent to the personal jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery within ten days following such determination), (B) which is vested in the exclusive jurisdiction of a court or forum other than the Court of Chancery, (C) for which the Court of Chancery does not have subject matter jurisdiction, or (D) arising under the Securities Act as to which the Court of Chancery and the federal district court for the District of Delaware shall have concurrent jurisdiction. Notwithstanding the foregoing, these provisions will not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.

Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any security of MoneyLion shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to these provisions.

These choice-of-forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that he, she or it believes to be favorable for disputes with MoneyLion or MoneyLion’s directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits. We note that there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce these provisions and that investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for state and federal courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.

Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation inapplicable or unenforceable with respect to one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, MoneyLion may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could materially adversely affect MoneyLion’s business, financial condition and results of operations and result in a diversion of the time and resources of MoneyLion’s management and board of directors.

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We incur significant costs and have become subject to additional regulations and requirements as a result of becoming a public company, and our management is required to devote substantial time to new compliance matters, which could lower profits and make it more difficult to run our business.

We completed the Business Combination with Legacy MoneyLion on September 22, 2021. As a publicly traded company, MoneyLion incurs significant legal, accounting and other expenses that Legacy MoneyLion was not required to incur in the past as a privately held company, including costs associated with public company reporting requirements and costs of recruiting and retaining non-employee directors. We also have incurred, and will continue to incur, costs associated with compliance with the rules and regulations of the SEC, the listing requirements of NYSE and various other costs of a public company. These expenses will increase once MoneyLion is no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined under the JOBS Act. These laws and regulations also could make it more difficult and costly for us to obtain certain types of insurance, including director and officer liability insurance, and we may be forced to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. These laws and regulations could also make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors and board committees and to serve as executive officers.

In addition, new and changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure for public companies, including the Dodd-Frank Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, regulations related thereto and the rules and regulations of the SEC and NYSE, have increased the costs and the time that must be devoted to compliance matters. We expect these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial costs and lead to a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

All of the shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock offered by the Selling Stockholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Stockholders for their respective amounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales. We will bear all costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of the MoneyLion Class A Common Stock, including with regard to compliance with state securities or “blue sky” laws. The Selling Stockholders will bear all commissions and discounts, if any, attributable to their sale of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock. See “Plan of Distribution.”

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MARKET PRICE OF OUR SECURITIES

The MoneyLion Class A Common Stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “ML”. On March 21, 2022, the closing sale price of the MoneyLion Class A Common Stock was $2.98. As of March 15, 2022, there were approximately 112 holders of record of the MoneyLion Class A Common Stock. Such numbers do not include beneficial owners holding our securities through nominee names.

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates, and beliefs that involve risks and uncertainties. As a result of many factors, such as those set forth under the “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” sections and elsewhere in this prospectus, our actual results may differ materially from those discussed below and elsewhere in this prospectus.

Overview

MoneyLion offers a personalized, all-in-one, digital financial platform that provides convenient, low-cost access to banking, borrowing and investing solutions tailored for our customers, rooted in data and delivered through our proprietary technology platform. We use innovative, data-driven approaches to address our customers’ individual life inflection points and financial circumstances. When our customers enjoy periods of financial excess, we provide tools for them to easily manage their spending and saving goals through our digital banking and automated investing solutions. When our customers experience moments of financial need, we provide them immediate access to innovative lending or earned income advance products and credit improvement programs that can bridge these times of financial stress and improve their financial health. We provide access to personalized proprietary products as well as financial and non-financial products offered by third-party providers. Our subsidiary, MALKA, provides digital media and content production services to us and to its own clients in entertainment, sports, gaming, live streaming and other sectors.

The Company’s key product offerings include:

RoarMoney Premium Mobile Banking — RoarMoney is our Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”)-insured digital demand deposit account with zero minimums, premium features and rewards. Our RoarMoney demand deposit accounts are currently issued by MetaBank. Customers can open a RoarMoney account in minutes through the MoneyLion mobile application, add funds to their account and begin spending using a RoarMoney virtual debit card. RoarMoney accounts also include a physical MoneyLion Debit Mastercard that can be used at any of the approximately 55,000 Allpoint ATM network locations to make no-fee withdrawals. We earn revenue from interchange fees from payment networks based on customer expenditures on the debit card. We also earn revenue from cardholder fees such as a small monthly administrative fee charged to our customers and a fee charged to customers when an out-of-network ATM is utilized to withdraw cash. Both interchange fees and cardholder fees are reflected in fee income. We incur direct costs in connection with the RoarMoney account offering, which include fees paid to the payment networks and our partner bank.

Personalized Investing — MoneyLion Investing is an online investment account that offers access to separately managed accounts invested based on model portfolios comprised of ETFs and managed on a discretionary basis. Advisory services related to the MoneyLion investment account are provided by ML Wealth, an SEC-registered investment adviser and an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of MoneyLion. Brokerage and custodial services are provided by DriveWealth, a third-party provider. This fully-managed account model allows customers to set their investment strategy and let ML Wealth manage investment decisions to implement that strategy on a discretionary basis. An investment account holder simply identifies their investing comfort zone to receive a personalized portfolio, a mix of stock and bond ETFs. Our managed investment account is available on a standalone basis. We earn revenue from a small monthly administration fee from our customers who use this product, which is reflected in fee income.

Crypto — MoneyLion Crypto is an online cryptocurrency account that enables customers to buy, sell and hold cryptocurrency. The account is provided by Zero Hash. RoarMoney accountholders can open a MoneyLion Crypto account through the MoneyLion mobile application and fund it via their RoarMoney account. In addition, customers can also round up purchases made either on their RoarMoney account or an external bank account to the nearest dollar. The accrued round ups can then be transferred into the customer’s MoneyLion Crypto account and invested in Bitcoin. As of December 31, 2021, the only cryptocurrencies available through the MoneyLion Crypto account were Bitcoin and Ether. In January 2022, MoneyLion Crypto expanded to include Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin. We earn revenue from Zero Hash as they pay us a share of the fees that they earn from our customers in exchange for MoneyLion enabling Zero Hash to effect digital currency-related transactions for our customers. This revenue is reflected in fee income.

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Instacash — Instacash is our 0% APR advance product that gives customers early access to their recurring income deposits. Customers can access Instacash advances at any time during a regular deposit period up to their advance limit, providing customers with the flexibility to cover temporary cash needs and avoid costly overdraft fees. There are no fees associated with regular delivery of funds to either a RoarMoney account (typically delivered within 12-48 hours) or an external checking account (typically delivered within two to five business days). However, customers have the option to pay an additional fee in order to receive their funds on an expedited basis (typically within minutes or less), the amount of which is based on the amount of the disbursement and whether the funds are delivered to a RoarMoney account or an external checking account. Customers may also choose to leave MoneyLion an optional tip for use of the Instacash service. We earn revenue from tips and instant transfer fees, both reflected in fee income.

Credit Builder Plus — Our Credit Builder Plus membership program offers a proven path for our customers to access credit and establish or rebuild history, build savings, establish financial literacy and track their financial health. For a monthly cost of $19.99, customers receive a suite of services including banking and investment accounts, credit tracking and financial literacy content, rewards programs and access to loans of up to $1,000 at competitive rates offered by MoneyLion lending subsidiaries, allowing our customers to establish up to twelve months of payment history with all three credit bureaus. We offer our Credit Builder Plus members access to the Lion’s Share Loyalty Program, where members can earn rewards of up to $19.99 per month. We earn revenue from monthly membership fees paid by our customers. These fees are reflected in membership subscription revenue. As part of the Credit Builder Plus membership program, members may apply for a Credit Builder Plus secured personal loan. In addition to a free standard disbursement option, we also offered our customers an option to disburse their funds to their MoneyLion-serviced RoarMoney bank account or external bank account on an expedited basis for an instant transfer fee. This instant disbursement option for Credit Builder Plus loans was removed in the second quarter of 2021. Prior to our launch of Credit Builder Plus in 2019, we offered a ML Plus membership through which we originated unsecured personal loans, ML Plus loans. The ML Plus membership transitioned into the Credit Builder Plus membership in the second quarter of 2020. We earn revenue from interest income, reflected in net interest income on finance receivables, and, prior to the removal of the instant disbursement option, instant transfer fees, reflected in fee income.

Financial Tracking — We offer our customers access to financial tracking tools such as Financial Heartbeat, GamePlan and credit score tracking. Financial Heartbeat is an intelligent, automated tool that guides customers on their financial journey. Financial Heartbeat evaluates customers’ financial situation across four key dimensions: SAVE (savings and financial preparedness), SPEND (spending and personal budget), SHIELD (insurance needs and coverage) and SCORE (credit tracking and health). Through our easy-to-use interface, customers can review the key issues impacting their financial situation, decide what actions to take, evaluate which products to use and receive guidance on how to stay motivated on their journey towards financial wellness. GamePlan provides our customers with a personalized action plan, including a checklist with tasks, meant to help them reach their financial goals across different categories such as spending, saving and more. Financial tracking tools are offered to our customers at no cost and we do not earn revenue from these services.

MoneyLife — Consistent with our vision of establishing MoneyLion as a lifestyle brand, in 2021 we introduced MoneyLife, an online financial education content destination. MoneyLife is an influencer-focused, video content-driven educational platform where customers can share and discover ideas, advice and insights regarding their financial lives. With high usability and sleek design, MoneyLife includes highly personalized content driven by financial advice and education influencers, tools to achieve financial goals and additional ways of earning rewards to shop and save. Through MoneyLife, we provide an additional daily destination site for current customers, drive additional prospective customers to MoneyLion and increase customer engagement and cross-sell opportunities for both MoneyLion and its affiliate partners.

Affiliate marketing program — We work with various affiliate partners that offer products or services that we may recommend to our customers via display ads, offers or campaigns through our digital platform. Our customers can access these offers on a standalone basis. We earn revenue from fees from our affiliate partners in exchange for meeting certain success metrics related to their campaigns such as customers’ clicks, impressions or completed transactions. This revenue is reflected in affiliates income.

Unsecured personal loans — We used to offer unsecured personal loans to our customers. We earned revenue from interest income, which was reflected in net interest income on finance receivables, and fees, which were reflected in fee income. We phased out this offering in the first quarter of 2020 and it is not expected to contribute to revenue going forward.

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Credit-related decision servicing — MoneyLion provided credit-related decision servicing to third parties. We earned revenue from fees generated from this service. These fees were reflected in fee income. We phased out this offering in the first quarter of 2020 and it is not expected to contribute to revenue going forward.

Receivables originated on our platform, including Credit Builder Plus loans and Instacash advances, were primarily financed through IIA until the end of the fourth quarter of 2021. As of December 31, 2020, IIA had assets of approximately $86 million, primarily from institutional investors, and had been our primary source of funding for originated receivables since 2018. As of December 31, 2021, IIA had no assets. Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2021, MoneyLion transitioned its primary source of funding for originated receivables from IIA to special purpose vehicle financings from third-party institutional lenders. As of December 31, 2021, there was an outstanding principal balance of $78 million under the ROAR 1 SPV Credit Facility and an outstanding principal balance of $68 million under the ROAR 2 SPV Credit Facility (each as defined herein). See Note 1, “Description of Business and Basis of Presentation” and Note 9. “Debt” in the financial statements included in this prospectus for more information.

Recent Developments

Recent events impacting our business are as follows:

COVID-19 — The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial changes in consumer behavior, restrictions on business and individual activities and high unemployment rates, which led to reduced economic activity and may continue to cause economic volatility. There continue to be significant uncertainties associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including with respect to the course, duration and severity of the virus and additional variants, future actions that may be taken by governmental authorities and private businesses to contain the COVID-19 pandemic or to mitigate its impact and the effectiveness of such actions, the timing and speed of economic recovery and the ultimate effectiveness of vaccinations for COVID-19.

In response to the economic uncertainty caused by the pandemic, during 2021, we made certain operational changes and implemented certain consumer support programs which were immaterial to our performance. For example, we reduced our marketing activities such as advertising through digital platforms, which have since returned to pre-pandemic levels and also reduced our sponsorship arrangements with third parties. In addition, we implemented underwriting policy changes on a targeted basis to more closely manage credit risk while we further evaluated market conditions. Our underwriting models are dynamic relative to real time changes in our customer’s income and credit profiles and our credit performance remained steady as our underwriting models quickly adapted to these changes. To further support our customers, we expanded our payment deferral options and reduced certain fees, while providing them with relevant content and resources on topics like unemployment insurance and stimulus checks. For instance, for our secured personal loan customers with no prior missed payments, we offered payment deferrals based on a customer’s payment frequency, ranging from one payment deferral for monthly payments and up to three payment deferrals for weekly payments. For our Instacash customers with an outstanding advance, we allowed them to change the scheduled repayment date by up to 14 days. Once the advance was repaid, the customer could request another change to the scheduled repayment on another advance. While there is no limit to the number of changes a customer may be granted, they are limited to one at a time and per advance. Despite the economic uncertainty as a result of COVID-19, we have increased the number of customers on our platform.

In April 2020, the Company borrowed $3.2 million from a bank under the U.S. Small Business Administration’s (“SBA”) Paycheck Protection Program that was introduced as part of the U.S. Government’s COVID-19 relief efforts (the “PPP Loan”). In June 2021, the SBA approved the Company’s application for forgiveness with respect to the entire outstanding balance of the PPP Loan.

Management will continue to monitor the nature and extent of potential impact to the business as the pandemic continues.

Business Combinations — Since January 1, 2020, we have completed the following business combinations:

•        WTI Acquisition — In December 2020, Legacy MoneyLion acquired 100% of the outstanding common stock and Series A redeemable convertible preferred shares of Wealth Technologies Inc. (“WTI”) in exchange for 539,592 shares of Legacy MoneyLion Series C-1 Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock, representing total consideration of approximately $27.9 million, which provided us with WTI’s market-leading wealth management decisioning and administration technology. The co-founder and

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equity holder of WTI was a significant stockholder of Series A redeemable convertible preferred stock of Legacy MoneyLion and was the Chairman of the Legacy MoneyLion board of directors as of the date of the transaction. The purchase price has been allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their respective fair market values. The excess of the aggregate purchase price over the fair values of the net assets acquired was recognized as goodwill of approximately $21.6 million.

•        Merger with Fusion — On September 22, 2021, Legacy MoneyLion completed the Business Combination with Fusion and became a publicly traded company. The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with U.S. GAAP, for which Legacy MoneyLion was determined to be the accounting acquirer. Since the Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, no goodwill or other intangible assets were recorded, in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Under this method of accounting, Fusion was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Operations prior to the Business Combination are those of Legacy MoneyLion. See Note 3, “Business Combination” in the financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information.

•        MALKA Acquisition — On November 15, 2021, MoneyLion completed its acquisition of MALKA (the “MALKA Acquisition”). MALKA is a creator network and content platform that provides digital media and content production services to us and to its own clients in entertainment, sports, gaming, live streaming and other sectors. The MALKA Acquisition accelerates MoneyLion’s ability to engage with consumers across all digital and emerging channels, allowing MoneyLion to directly connect with communities natively inside and outside of its existing platform. We intend for MALKA to operate as an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of MoneyLion Inc. with MALKA’s pre-acquisition management team leading day-to-day operations.

         The total purchase price of the MALKA Acquisition was approximately $52.7 million. MoneyLion issued 4,181,441 restricted shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock and paid $10.0 million in cash to the sellers in exchange for all of the issued and outstanding membership interests of MALKA. MoneyLion also paid down approximately $2.2 million of MALKA debt facilities. The sellers may earn up to an additional $35 million payable in restricted shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock if MALKA’s revenue and EBITDA exceeds certain targets in 2021 and 2022. The $35 million payable in restricted shares based on 2021 and 2022 operating performance was valued at $11.8 million as of the acquisition.

•        Even Acquisition — On February 17, 2022, MoneyLion completed the Even Acquisition. Even Financial digitally connects and matches consumers with real-time personalized financial product recommendations from banks, insurance and fintech companies on mobile apps, websites and other consumer touchpoints through its marketplace technology. Even Financial’s infrastructure leverages machine learning and advanced data science to solve a significant pain point in financial services customer acquisition, seamlessly bridging financial institutions and channel partners via its industry-leading API and embedded finance marketplaces.

         The Even Acquisition strengthens MoneyLion’s platform by improving consumers’ abilities to find and access the right financial products to help them manage their financial lives. Even Financial’s growing network includes over 400 financial institution partners and 500 channel partners, covering a breadth of financial services including loans, credit cards, mortgages, savings and insurance products. The Even Acquisition also expands MoneyLion’s addressable market, extends the reach of MoneyLion’s own products, diversifies its revenue mix and furthers MoneyLion’s ambition to be the premier financial super app for hardworking Americans.

         At the closing of the Even Acquisition, MoneyLion (i) issued to the equityholders of Even Financial an aggregate of 28,164,811 shares of Preferred Stock, with a face value of the Conversion Price, (ii) paid to certain Even Financial management equityholders approximately $14.5 million in cash, (iii) issued an aggregate of 529,120 shares of Preferred Stock to advisors of Even Financial for transaction expenses and (iv) exchanged 8,883,228 options to acquire Even Financial common stock for 5,901,846 options to acquire MoneyLion Class A Common Stock. The equityholders and advisors of Even Financial are also entitled to receive the Even Financial Earnout. Based on the Conversion Price of the shares of Preferred Stock issued at the closing of the Even Acquisition and to be issued pursuant to the Even Financial Earnout, the value of the options to acquire MoneyLion Class A Common Stock and the cash paid to the

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management equityholders, the total purchase price was approximately $440 million, subject to customary purchase price adjustments for working capital and inclusive of transaction expenses and amounts used to repay approximately $5.7 million of existing indebtedness of Even Financial.

Factors Affecting Our Performance

The Company is subject to a number of risks including, but not limited to, the need for successful development of products, the need for additional capital (or financing) to fund operating losses, competition from substitute products and services from larger companies, protection of proprietary technology, dependence on key individuals and risks associated with changes in information technology.

New customer growth and increasing usage across existing customers

Our ability to effectively acquire new customers through our acquisition and marketing efforts, and drive usage of our products across our existing customers is key to our growth. We invested in the platform approach and believe our customers’ experience is enhanced by using our full product suite as we can better tailor the insights and recommendations. In turn, this generates higher revenue and lifetime value from our customer base.

Product expansion and innovation

We believe in the platform approach and providing relevant products to our customers to help them better manage their financial lives, both in times of need and excess. We will continue to invest in enhancing our existing suite of products and developing new products. Any factors that impair our ability to do so may negatively impact our efforts towards retaining and attracting customers.

General economic and market conditions

Our performance is impacted by the relative strength of the overall economy, market volatility, consumer spending behavior and consumer demand for financial products and services. The willingness of our customers to spend, invest, or borrow may fluctuate with their level of disposable income. Other factors such as interest rate fluctuations or monetary policies may also impact our customers’ behavior and our own ability to fund advances and loan volume.

Competition

We compete with several larger financial institutions and technology platforms that offer similar products and services. We compete with those that offer both single point solutions similar to any one of our products as well as more integrated, complete solutions. Some of our competitors may have access to more resources than we do and thus may be able to offer better pricing or benefits to our customers.

Pricing of our products

We derive a substantial portion of our revenue from fees earned from our products. The fees we earn are subject to a variety of external factors such as competition, interchange rates and other macroeconomic factors, such as interest rates and inflation, among others. We may provide discounts to customers who utilize multiple products to expand usage of our platform. We may also lower pricing on our products to acquire new customers. For example, we offer our customers discounts such as Shake ‘N’ Bank cashback and other cashback rewards opportunities as part of our RoarMoney bank account product offering and such discounts are provided to customers based on eligible MoneyLion debit card transactions. On average, approximately 40% of our eligible RoarMoney bank account customers receive this benefit. We also offer our Credit Builder Plus members access to our Lion’s Share Loyalty Program where members can earn up to $19.99 per month. The size of the Lion’s Share reward depends on a customer’s number of logins into the MoneyLion app and purchases using their RoarMoney account in that month. On average, approximately 25% of our Credit Builder Plus members who met the minimum eligibility criteria received a Lion’s Share reward.

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Product mix

We provide various products and services on our platform, including a membership program, loans, earned income advances and cryptocurrency, investment and bank accounts. Each product has a different profitability profile. The relative usage of products with high or low profitability and their lifetime value could have an impact on our performance.

Access and cost of financing

Our credit products and other receivables were primarily financed through IIA until the end of the fourth quarter of 2021. Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2021, we transitioned our primary source of funding for originated receivables from IIA to special purpose vehicle financings from third-party institutional lenders. Loss of one or more of the financing sources we have for our credit products and other receivables could have an adverse impact on our performance, and it could be costly to obtain new financing.

Key Performance Metrics

We regularly review several metrics, including the following key metrics, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate financial projections and make strategic decisions.

Total Originations

We define Total Originations as the dollar volume of the secured personal loans originated and Instacash advances funded within the stated period. We consider Total Originations to be a key performance metric as it can be used to measure the usage and engagement of the customers across our secured personal lending and Instacash products and is a significant driver of net interest income on finance receivables and fee income. Total Originations were $1.1 billion and $410 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and were originated directly by MoneyLion.

Total Customers

We define Total Customers as those customers that have opened at least one account, including banking, membership subscription, secured personal loan, Instacash advance, managed investment account, cryptocurrency account or affiliate product. We consider Total Customers to be a key performance metric as it can be used to understand lifecycle efforts of our customers, as we look to cross-sell products to our customer base and grow our platform. Total Customers were 3.3 million and 1.4 million as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, approximately 27% and 33%, respectively, of our Total Customers that have opened a banking or managed investment account have funded accounts. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, approximately 64% and 53%, respectively, of our Total Customers have engaged in any activity on our platform.

Total Products

We define Total Products as the total number of products that our Total Customers have opened including banking, membership subscription, secured personal loan, Instacash advance, managed investment account, cryptocurrency account, affiliate product, or signed up for our financial tracking services (with either credit tracking enabled or external linked accounts), whether or not the customer is still registered for the product. If a customer has funded multiple secured personal loans or Instacash advances, it is only counted once for each product type. We consider Total Products to be a key performance metric as it can be used to understand the usage of our products across our customer base. Total Products were 8.0 million and 4.5 million as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

Adjusted Revenue

Adjusted Revenue is defined as total revenues, net, plus amortization of loan origination costs less provision for loss on membership receivables and provision for loss on fees receivables, revenue derived from phased out products and non-operating income. We believe that Adjusted Revenue provides a meaningful understanding of revenue from ongoing products and recurring revenue for comparability purposes. Adjusted Revenue is a non-GAAP measure and should not be viewed as a substitute for total revenues, net. Refer to the “Non-GAAP Measures” section below for further discussion.

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Our Adjusted Revenue is further broken into the following categories:

 

Twelve Months Ended
December 31,

2021

 

2020

(In thousands)

Fees

 

$

125,081

 

$

60,955

Payments

 

 

13,602

 

 

6,556

Advice

 

 

16,622

 

 

3,388

Interest

 

 

9,628

 

 

5,154

Adjusted Revenue

 

$

164,934

 

$

76,053

This breakdown of Adjusted Revenue across the categories of fees, payments, advice and interest helps provide our management with a better understanding of Adjusted Revenue by type and may help to inform strategic pricing and resource allocations across our products.

Adjusted Gross Profit, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Net Income (Loss)

We believe Adjusted Gross Profit, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Net Income (Loss) provide a meaningful understanding of an aspect of profitability based on our current product portfolio. These are non-GAAP measures and should not be viewed as a substitute for gross profit nor net income (loss). Refer to the “Non-GAAP Measures” section below for further discussion.

Results of Operations for the Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020

The following table is reference for the discussion that follows.

 

Twelve Months Ended
December 31,

 

Change

2021

 

2020

 

$

 

%

(In thousands, except for percentages)

Revenue

 

 

   

 

   

 

     

 

Net interest income on finance receivables

 

$

7,002

 

$

4,347

 

$

2,655

 

61.1

%

Membership subscription revenue

 

 

32,357

 

 

25,994

 

 

6,363

 

24.5

%

Affiliates income

 

 

10,900

 

 

2,234

 

 

8,666

 

387.9

%

Fee income

 

 

116,131

 

 

46,639

 

 

69,492

 

149.0

%

Other income

 

 

4,721

 

 

197

 

 

4,524

 

2,296.4

%

Total Revenues, net

 

 

171,111

 

 

79,411

 

 

91,700

 

115.5

%

Operating expenses

 

 

   

 

   

 

     

 

Marketing

 

 

43,170

 

 

11,060

 

 

32,110

 

290.3

%

Provision for loss on receivables

 

 

60,749

 

 

21,294

 

 

39,455

 

185.3

%

Other direct costs

 

 

8,864

 

 

4,336

 

 

4,528

 

104.4

%

Interest expense

 

 

7,251

 

 

2,950

 

 

4,301

 

145.8

%

Personnel expenses

 

 

45,878

 

 

24,200

 

 

21,678

 

89.6

%

Underwriting expenses

 

 

8,253

 

 

6,242

 

 

2,011

 

32.2

%

Information technology expenses

 

 

7,488

 

 

7,041

 

 

447

 

6.3

%

Bank and payment processor fees

 

 

24,565

 

 

13,737

 

 

10,828

 

78.8

%

Change in fair value of warrant liability

 

 

39,629

 

 

14,419

 

 

25,210

 

174.8

%

Change in fair value of subordinated convertible notes

 

 

41,877

 

 

4,000

 

 

37,877

 

946.9

%

Change in fair value of contingent consideration from mergers and acquisitions

 

 

6,229

 

 

 

 

6,229

 

nm

 

Professional fees

 

 

19,847

 

 

8,396

 

 

11,451

 

136.4

%

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Twelve Months Ended
December 31,

 

Change

2021

 

2020

 

$

 

%

(In thousands, except for percentages)

Depreciation and amortization expense

 

 

2,392

 

 

 

1,108

 

 

 

1,284

 

 

115.9

%

Occupancy expense

 

 

997

 

 

 

1,233

 

 

 

(236

)

 

(19.1

)%

Gain on foreign currency translation

 

 

(431

)

 

 

(179

)

 

 

(252

)

 

140.8

%

Other operating expenses

 

 

19,172

 

 

 

1,155

 

 

 

18,017

 

 

1,559.9

%

Total operating expenses

 

 

335,930

 

 

 

120,992

 

 

 

214,938

 

 

177.6

%

Net loss before income taxes

 

 

(164,819

)

 

 

(41,581

)

 

 

(123,238

)

 

296.4

%

Income tax expense

 

 

56

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

50

 

 

833.3

%

Net loss

 

$

(164,875

)

 

$

(41,587

)

 

$

(123,288

)

 

296.5

%

Revenues

We generate revenues primarily from originating loans, providing membership subscriptions, various product related fees and promoting affiliate services.

Total revenues increased by $91.7 million, or 115.5%, to $171.1 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $79.4 million for the same period in 2020.

Net interest income on finance receivables

Net interest income on finance receivables is generated by interest earned on unsecured personal loans, ML Plus loans, and Credit Builder Plus loans, which is offset by the amortization of loan origination costs.

Net interest income on finance receivables increased by $2.7 million, or 61.1%, to $7.0 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $4.3 million for the same period in 2020. Net interest income on finance receivables comprises the following:

Credit Builder Plus loans

Net interest income related to Credit Builder Plus loans increased by $5.4 million, or 128.1%, to $9.6 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 as compared to $4.2 million for the same period in 2020. We launched Credit Builder Plus in 2019 and it became our only secured personal loan product in the second quarter of 2020 as we transitioned from ML Plus loans, which contributed to the increase in net interest income as Credit Builder Plus loans increased across both existing and new customers.

ML Plus loans

Net interest income related to ML Plus loans decreased by $0.9 million to $0.0 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $0.9 million for the same period in 2020. We transitioned from originating ML Plus loans in the second quarter of 2020 as we offered our new and existing customers our Credit Builder Plus loans. Therefore, these loans are immaterial to our ongoing performance as they represent less than 1% of receivables on our consolidated balance sheets.

Unsecured personal loans

Net interest income related to unsecured personal loans decreased by $1.3 million to $(0.1) million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $1.2 million for the same period in 2020. During the first quarter of 2020, we phased out originating unsecured personal loans. Therefore, these loans are immaterial to our ongoing performance as they represent less than 1% of receivables on our consolidated balance sheets.

Amortization of loan origination costs

The amortization of loan origination costs increased by $0.6 million, to $2.5 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $1.9 million for the same period in 2020.

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Membership subscription revenue

Membership subscription revenue increased by $6.4 million, or 24.5%, to $32.4 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $26.0 million for the same period in 2020 due to an increasing number of customers using the Credit Builder Plus membership program. This was slightly offset by a lower monthly Credit Builder Plus membership fee charged to customers compared to the higher priced ML Plus membership offered in the first half of 2020. There was a non-recurring adjustment of $3.6 million in 2020 that reduced membership revenue during that period. Membership subscription revenue would have increased $2.8 million during this period excluding this adjustment.

Affiliates income

Affiliates income increased by $8.7 million, or 387.9%, to $10.9 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $2.2 million for the same period in 2020. This increase was primarily attributable to an increase in income generated from running campaigns promoting various affiliate partners through our digital platform, driven by the expansion of our partner network and growth in Total Customers.

Fee income

Fee income increased by $69.5 million, or 149.0%, to $116.1 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $46.6 million for the same period in 2020.

Fee income is primarily comprised of the following:

Instant transfer fees

Fee income related to instant transfer fees on Instacash, Credit Builder Plus loans and ML Plus loans increased by $51.6 million to $78.0 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $26.4 million for the same period in 2020. The increase is largely attributable to the growth of Instacash advances, across both existing and new customers. We launched the instant transfer disbursement option for Instacash customers in 2019 and have since seen a consistent percentage of our Instacash customers elect this disbursement option. In November 2021, our pricing structure was changed from a fixed to a variable structure based on the size of the advance. Additionally, there was a decrease in instant transfer fees on Credit Builder Plus loans as beginning in the second quarter of 2021, the instant transfer disbursement option was removed for Credit Builder Plus loans.

Tips

Fee income related to tips from Instacash increased by $11.7 million to $23.5 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $11.8 million for the same period in 2020. This increase was driven by the growth of Instacash advances, across both existing and new customers.

Interchange fees

Fee income related to interchange fees from our bank account increased by $5.8 million to $11.1 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $5.3 million for the same period in 2020. This increase was driven by an increase in bank account customers and transaction volume on the platform.

Cardholder fees

Fee income related to cardholder fees from our bank account increased by $1.2 million to $2.5 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $1.3 million for the same period in 2020. This increase was primarily driven by a small monthly administration fee that we began charging our bank account customers in the third quarter of 2020 as well as an increase in bank account customers and usage of ATM-related services.

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Administration fees

Fee income related to administration fees from our managed investment account decreased by $0.1 million to $1.0 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $1.1 million for the same period in 2020. We charge our investment account customers a small administration fee. We transitioned from a quarterly to monthly frequency, while holding the fee amount the same, in the fourth quarter of 2020, while also instituting a waiver of the fee for Credit Builder Plus members.

Credit-related decision services fees

Fee income related to credit-related decision services decreased to zero for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $0.7 million for same period in 2020. These decreases in revenue were due to the phasing out of this offering in the first quarter of 2020. We do not expect this to contribute to revenue going forward.

Other income

Other income increased by $4.5 million to $4.7 million, for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $0.2 million for the same period in 2020. This increase was primarily driven by revenue generated by digital media and content production services.

Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses consist of the following:

Marketing

Marketing increased by $32.1 million, or 290.3%, to $43.2 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $11.1 million for the same period in 2020. This increase resulted primarily from an increase in costs related to advertising through digital platforms of $26.8 million and other marketing-related activities of $5.6 million, partially offset by a decrease in costs related to sponsor agreements with third parties of $0.3 million. Marketing expenses also included $1.1 million in the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 related to the Business Combination.

Provision for loss on receivables

Provision for loss on receivables consists of amounts charged during the period to maintain an allowance for credit and advance losses. The allowance represents management’s estimate of the credit losses in our loan and advance portfolio and is based on management’s assessment of many factors, including changes in the nature, volume and risk characteristics of the finance receivables portfolio, including trends in delinquency and charge-offs and current economic conditions that may affect the customer’s ability to pay.

Provision for loss on receivables increased by $39.5 million, or 185.3%, to $60.7 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $21.3 million for the same period in 2020. This increase resulted primarily from an increase to provision related to Instacash advance receivables of $30.4 million, Instacash instant transfer fees and tips of $4.2 million and Credit Builder Plus loan receivables of $1.0 million, evidenced by the increase in Total Originations from approximately $410 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 compared to approximately $1.1 billion for the same period in 2021. Provision related to membership fees increased by $1.3 million. Related to the ML Plus loans, a legacy product we transitioned from in the second quarter of 2020, the provision increased by $2.3 million, from $(3.3) million in the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 compared to $(1.0) million for the same period in 2021.

Other direct costs

Other direct costs increased by $4.5 million, or 104.4%, to $8.9 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $4.3 million for the same period in 2020. This increase resulted from an increase in costs related to our bank account offering, paid to our partner bank, card associations and third-party service providers, which was largely driven by the increase in bank account customers and transaction volume on the platform.

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Interest expense

Interest expense increased by $4.3 million, or 145.8%, to $7.3 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $3.0 million for the same period in 2020. This increase resulted from an increase in debt from December 31, 2020 to December 31, 2021. See Note 9, “Debt” in the financial statements included in this prospectus for more information.

Personnel expenses

Personnel expenses increased by $21.7 million, or 89.6%, to $45.9 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $24.2 million for the same period in 2020. This increase resulted from an increase in personnel-related costs, such as compensation and benefits, including $6.3 million in non-recurring, discretionary incentive bonus expense related to the Business Combination. Stock-based compensation also increased by $3.4 million. Total employees across all locations increased from 234 as of December 31, 2020 to 556 as of December 31, 2021.

Underwriting expenses

Underwriting expenses increased by $2.0 million, or 32.2%, to $8.3 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $6.2 million for the same period in 2020. This increase resulted primarily from an increase in data costs for Total Originations and Total Customers.

Information technology expenses

Information technology expenses increased by $0.4 million, or 6.3%, to $7.5 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $7.0 million for the same period in 2020. This increase resulted primarily from an increase in internet hosting expenses of $0.9 million, offset by a decrease in software licenses and subscriptions of $0.4 million.

Bank and payment processor fees

Bank and payment processor fees increased by $10.8 million, or 78.8%, to $24.6 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $13.7 million for the same period in 2020. This increase resulted primarily from an increase in payment processing fees driven by the growth in Total Originations and Total Customers.

Change in fair value of warrant liability

Change in fair value of warrant liability was an expense of $39.6 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to an expense of $14.4 million for the same period in 2020. The change in fair value of warrant liability is due to changes in inputs that drive the fair value calculations.

Change in fair value of subordinated convertible notes

Change in fair value of subordinated convertible notes was an expense of $41.9 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $4.0 million for the same period in 2020. The increase in expense resulted from the issuance of the convertible subordinated notes in December 2020 and January 2021, which were converted into common stock immediately prior to the Business Combination Closing (as defined herein); the noteholders subsequently received shares of MoneyLion Class A Common Stock upon the Business Combination Closing.

Change in fair value of contingent consideration from mergers and acquisitions

Change in fair value of contingent consideration from mergers and acquisitions was an expense of $6.2 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to zero for the same period in 2020. The change in fair value and related increase in expense resulted from MALKA’s operating performance exceeding initial estimates available at the time of the MALKA Acquisition.

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Professional fees

Professional fees increased by $11.5 million, or 136.4%, to $19.8 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $8.4 million for the same period in 2020. This increase resulted primarily from an increase in fees related to accounting and consulting services of $5.5 million and legal services of $5.9 million, resulting in part from supplemental accounting and legal support related to the Business Combination and other transaction-related activity such as the MALKA Acquisition and Even Acquisition.

Other operating expenses

Other operating expenses increased by $18.0 million to $19.2 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $1.2 million for the same period in 2020. The increase was driven by an increase of $10.3 million in losses for unrecovered customer purchase transactions related to our banking product, $3.5 million insurance-related expenses, digital media and content production services costs of $2.6 million, $1.9 million related to a reserve for costs related to ongoing legal matters and other general operating expenses. This was offset by the gain related to the forgiveness of loans of $3.2 million as the SBA approved the Company’s application for forgiveness with respect to the entire outstanding balance of the PPP loan in the second quarter of 2021.

Non-GAAP Measures

In addition to total revenues, net, net income (loss) and gross profit, which are measures presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP, management believes that Adjusted Revenue, Adjusted Gross Profit, Adjusted Net Income (Loss) and Adjusted EBITDA provide relevant and useful information which is widely used by analysts, investors and competitors in our industry in assessing performance. Adjusted Revenue, Adjusted Gross Profit, Adjusted Net Income (Loss) and Adjusted EBITDA are supplemental measures of MoneyLion’s performance that are neither required by nor presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Adjusted Revenue, Adjusted Gross Profit, Adjusted Net Income (Loss) and Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as substitutes for U.S. GAAP metrics such as total revenues, net, net income (loss), gross profit or any other performance measures derived in accordance with U.S. GAAP and may not be comparable to similar measures used by other companies.

We define Adjusted Revenue as total revenues, net plus amortization of loan origination costs less provision for loss on membership receivables and provision for loss on fees receivables, revenue derived from phased out products and non-operating income. We believe that Adjusted Revenue provides a meaningful understanding of revenue from ongoing products and recurring revenue for comparability purposes.

We define Adjusted Gross Profit as gross profit less revenue derived from phased out products and non-operating income. We define Adjusted Net Income (Loss) as net income (loss) plus change in fair value of warrants, change in fair value of subordinated convertible notes, change in fair value of contingent consideration from mergers and acquisitions, stock-based compensation, one-time transaction related expenses and other one-time expenses less origination financing cost of capital. We define Adjusted EBITDA as Adjusted Net Income (Loss) plus depreciation and amortization expense and interest expense related to corporate debt. We believe that these measures provide a meaningful understanding of an aspect of profitability based on our current product portfolio.

Adjusted Revenue, Adjusted Gross Profit, Adjusted Net Income (Loss) and Adjusted EBITDA are useful to an investor in evaluating our performance because these measures:

•        are widely used by investors to measure a company’s operating performance;

•        are metrics used by rating agencies, lenders and other parties to evaluate our credit worthiness; and

•        are used by our management for various purposes, including as measures of performance and as a basis for strategic planning and forecasting.

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The reconciliation of total revenues, net to Adjusted Revenue for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 is as follows:

 

Twelve Months Ended December 31,

2021

 

2020

(In thousands)

Total revenues, net

 

$

171,111

 

 

$

79,411

 

Add back:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amortization of loan origination costs(1)

 

 

2,500

 

 

 

1,894

 

Less:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Provision for loss on receivables – membership receivables(2)

 

 

(3,170

)

 

 

(1,856

)

Provision for loss on receivables – fees receivables(3)

 

 

(5,604

)

 

 

(1,356

)

Revenue, net derived from products that have been phased out(4)

 

 

114

 

 

 

(1,926

)

Non-operating income(5)

 

 

(17

)

 

 

(113

)

Adjusted Revenue

 

$

164,934

 

 

$

76,053

 

____________

(1)      Amortization of loan origination costs are included within net interest income from finance receivables.

(2)      We deduct provision for loss on receivables related to membership receivables from total revenues, net as it is related to revenue-based receivables. For U.S. GAAP reporting purposes, provision for loss on receivables related to membership receivables is included within provision for loss on receivables on the statement of operations. Refer to Note 2. “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” for further discussion.

(3)      We deduct provision for loss on receivables related to fees receivables from total revenues, net as it is related to revenue-based receivables. For U.S. GAAP reporting purposes, provision for loss on receivables related to fees receivables is included within provision for loss on receivables on the statement of operations. Refer to Note 2. “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” for further discussion.

(4)      Revenue, net derived from products that have been phased out includes net interest income and fees related to unsecured personal loans, which are included within net interest income from finance receivables and fee income, respectively, and credit-related decision servicing fees, which is included within fee income. Revenue from unsecured personal loans was $(0.1) million and $1.2 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Revenue from credit-related decision servicing was zero and $0.7 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

(5)      Non-operating income is included within other income and consists of interest income earned on cash balances and is considered non-operating.

The reconciliation of gross profit, which is prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP, to Adjusted Gross Profit for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 is as follows:

 

Twelve Months Ended December 31,

2021

 

2020

(In thousands)

Total revenues, net

 

$

171,111

 

 

$

79,411

 

Less:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of sales

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank and payment processor fees

 

 

(24,565

)

 

 

(13,737

)

Underwriting expenses

 

 

(8,253

)

 

 

(6,242

)

Provision for loss on receivables – membership receivables(1)

 

 

(3,170

)

 

 

(1,856

)

Provision for loss on receivables – fees receivables(2)

 

 

(5,604

)

 

 

(1,356

)

Information technology expenses

 

 

(6,352

)

 

 

(5,280

)

Professional fees